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Influence of Ti element on the electrical properties of negative temperature coefficient ceramics in Ca–Ce–Ti–W–O system

  • Mingzhe Hu
  • Huayi Xu
  • Yongde HaoEmail author
Article
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Abstract

In the present paper, the effects of TiO2 addition on the electrical properties of negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ceramics in Ca–Ce–Ti–W–O system are elaborately investigated. The semiconducting material was produced by solid state reaction method at 1300 °C in atmosphere. The phase composition, microstructure, and electrical properties of the compounds are studied. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the major phase presented in the as sintered samples is CaWO4-type scheelite compound together with a small amount of cubic Ca2TiWO7 compound. The existence of Ce and Ti in CaWO4-type scheelite phase and the presence of \({\text{Ti}}^{3 + }\) are confirmed by energy dispersion spectrum (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, respectively. Electrical properties are studied over the temperature range of 40–600 °C, results reveal that the resistivity at 50 °C ρ50 °C shows a V-type curve with the increase of Ti content and the material constant B300/600 °C varies from 4500 to 6000 Kelvin (abbreviated as K hereafter). Polaron theory reveals that the increase of conductivity with Ti content can be attributed to the hopping mechanism and consequently, the conductivity is effectively tuned by the Ti content.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank The National Science Foundation of China Nos 61076049 and 51567017; The Physical Electronic Key Discipline of Guizhou Province No. ZDXK201535 as well as The Outstanding Young Scientist Cultivation Program of Guizhou Province No. 201522 for the financial support of the present work.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechatronics EngineeringGuizhou Minzu UniversityGuiyangChina
  2. 2.School of Optical and Electronic InformationHuazhong University of Sci & Tech.WuhanChina

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