Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 30, Issue 17, pp 16395–16406 | Cite as

Effect of polyvinyl chloride fire smoke on the long-term corrosion kinetics and surface microstructure of tin–lead and lead-free solders

  • Qian Li
  • Jin Lin
  • Changhai Li
  • Shouxiang LuEmail author
  • Xiao ChenEmail author
Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

With the rapid increase of electric power use, wire and cable fire occurs more and more frequently. While the fire smoke could corrode the solders on the printed circuit boards, which seriously affects the function of electronic equipment. In this research, the long-term corrosion behavior of Sn–37Pb, Sn–0.7Cu, and Sn–3.0Ag solders under 140 g m−3 polyvinyl chloride fire smoke atmosphere were investigated. The mass loss of all solders increased sharply on the first day and then varied exponentially in the subsequent time period. Particularly, the mass loss of Sn–37Pb solder gradually stabilized after 10 days, while that of lead-free solders was after 12 days. Meanwhile, the corrosion morphology indicated that the corrosion products of both Sn–37Pb and Sn–0.7Cu solders grew to be larger and denser. While those of Sn–3.0Ag solder grew larger firstly and then became smaller and denser because the grain growth dominated firstly and then the nucleation dominated with corrosion time. The corrosion mechanism was analyzed by using EDS, XRD, and XPS. The result showed that the carbon particulates from the fire smoke was detected which might promote the corrosion process and all solders had a common corrosion product, Sn21Cl16(OH)14O6. Besides, Sn–37Pb solder also contained other corrosion product, PbCl2. The present work could provide guidance to the risk assessment for electronic equipment rescue after a fire.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Fundamental Research the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFC0802101) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51704268).

References

  1. 1.
    T. Rerek, L. Skowronski, M. Kobierski, M.K. Naparty, B. Derkowska-Zielinska, Microstructure and opto-electronic properties of Sn-rich Au–Sn diffusive solders. Appl. Surf. Sci. 451, 32–39 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Chen, J. Peng, L. Fu, X. Wang, Y. Xie, Solder wetting behavior enhancement via laser-textured surface microcosmic topography. Appl. Surf. Sci. 368, 208–215 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Chen, H.Y. Lee, C.S. Ku, A.T. Wu, Evolution of residual stress and qualitative analysis of Sn whiskers with various microstructures. J. Mater. Sci. 51, 3600–3606 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Ramirez, L. Henneken, S. Virtanen, Oxidation kinetics of thin copper films and wetting behaviour of copper and organic solderability preservatives (OSP) with lead-free solder. Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 6481–6488 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Medgyes, B. Horváth, B. Illés, T. Shinohara, A. Tahara, G. Harsányi, O. Krammer, Microstructure and elemental composition of electrochemically formed dendrites on lead-free micro-alloyed low Ag solder alloys used in electronics. Corros. Sci. 92, 43–47 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Huang, G. Shuai, X. Wei, C. Yin, Effects of sulfur addition on the wettability and corrosion resistance of Sn–0.7 Cu lead-free solder. MiRe 74, 15–21 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Horváth, T. Shinohara, B. Illés, Corrosion properties of tin–copper alloy coatings in aspect of tin whisker growth. J. Alloy. Compd. 577, 439–444 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Rasid, Z. Azwan, M.H. Zainol, M.F. Omar, M.N.B. Derman, M. Nazeri, M. Firdaus, Corrosion performance of Sn–9Zn and Sn–0.7 Cuin 3.5% NaCl solution, solid state phenomena (Trans Tech Publications, Zurich, 2018), pp. 56–60Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Rasid, Z. Azwan, M.F. Omar, M. Nazeri, M. Firdaus, Polarization study of Sn-0.7 Cu solder alloy in 1 M hydrochloric solution, Materials Science Forum (Trans Tech Publications, Zurich, 2017), pp. 394–399Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Choi, J. Lucas, K. Subramanian, T. Bieler, Formation and growth of interfacial intermetallic layers in eutectic Sn–Ag solder and its composite solder joints. J. Mater. Sci. 11, 497–502 (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Z. Wang, C. Chen, J. Liu, G. Zhang, K. Suganuma, Corrosion mechanism of Zn-30Sn high-temperature, lead-free solder in neutral NaCl solution. Corros. Sci. 140, 40–50 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Wang, J. Wang, W. Ke, Corrosion behavior of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu lead-free solder joints. MiRe 73, 69–75 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. Gao, C. Cheng, J. Zhao, L. Wang, X. Li, Electrochemical corrosion of Sn–0.75 Cu solder joints in NaCl solution. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 22, 977–982 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    W.R. Osório, E.S. Freitas, J.E. Spinelli, A. Garcia, Electrochemical behavior of a lead-free Sn–Cu solder alloy in NaCl solution. Corros. Sci. 80, 71–81 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Ambat, P. Møller, A review of corrosion and environmental effects on electronics. The Technical University of Denmark, DMS Vintermøde Proceedings (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    W.R. Osorio, L.C. Peixoto, L.R. Garcia, A. Garcia, J.E. Spinelli, The effects of microstructure and Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 intermetallics on the electrochemical behavior of Sn–Ag and Sn–Cu solder alloys. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 6436–6452 (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    W.R. Osório, C.M. Freire, R. Caram, A. Garcia, The role of Cu-based intermetallics on the pitting corrosion behavior of Sn–Cu, Ti–Cu and Al–Cu alloys. Electrochim. Acta 77, 189–197 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W.R. Osório, J.E. Spinelli, C.R.M. Afonso, L.C. Peixoto, A. Garcia, Microstructure, corrosion behaviour and microhardness of a directionally solidified Sn–Cu solder alloy. Electrochim. Acta 56, 8891–8899 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Q. Bui, N. Nam, B.I. Noh, A. Kar, J.G. Kim, S.B. Jung, Effect of Ag addition on the corrosion properties of Sn-based solder alloys. Mater. Corros. 61, 30–33 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Sharma, S. Das, K. Das, Electrochemical corrosion behavior of CeO2 nanoparticle reinforced Sn–Ag based lead free nanocomposite solders in 3.5 wt% NaCl bath. Surf. Coat. Technol. 261, 235–243 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.S. Newman, P. Su, G.G. Yee, S. Chivukula, Development of smoke corrosion and leakage current damage functions. Fire Saf. J. 61, 92–99 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Xiao, X. Gao, L. Yan, P. Yi, D. Zhang, C. Dong, J. Wu, X. Li, Atmospheric corrosion factors of printed circuit boards in a dry-heat desert environment: salty dust and diurnal temperature difference. Chem. Eng. J. 336, 92–101 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Q. Li, X. Liu, S. Lu, Corrosion behavior assessment of tin–lead and lead free solders exposed to fire smoke generated by burning polyvinyl chloride. Mater. Chem. Phys. 212, 298–307 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Q. Li, X. Liu, C. Li, X. Chen, S. Lu, Corrosion behavior of Sn–3.0 Ag–0.5 Cu solder under different fire smoke atmospheres generated by burning polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Mater. Corros. 69(6), 793–803 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Salhi, S. Tighadouini, M. El-Massaoudi, M. Elbelghiti, A. Bouyanzer, S. Radi, S. El Barkany, F. Bentiss, A. Zarrouk, Keto-enol heterocycles as new compounds of corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1M HCl: weight loss, electrochemical and quantum chemical investigation. J. Mol. Liq. 248, 340–349 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. Hua, R. Jonnalagadda, L. Zhang, A. Neville, R. Barker, Assessment of general and localized corrosion behavior of X65 and 13Cr steels in water-saturated supercritical CO2 environments with SO2/O2. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control 64, 126–136 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Zhao, E. Zhou, Y. Liu, S. Liao, Z. Li, D. Xu, T. Zhang, T. Gu, Comparison of different electrochemical techniques for continuous monitoring of the microbiologically influenced corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel by marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. Corros. Sci. 126, 142–151 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Park, D. Nam, K. Jung, K. Hong, H. Kwon, Effects of the degradation of methane sulfonic acid electrolyte on the collapse failure of Sn–Ag alloy solders for flip-chip interconnections. RSC Adv. 7, 23136–23142 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Wang, J. Wang, H. Feng, W. Ke, Effect of Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds on corrosion of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder under high-temperature and high-humidity condition. Corros. Sci. 63, 20–28 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Franch, E. Rodríguez Castellón, Á. Reyes Carmona, A.E. Palomares, Characterization of (Sn and Cu)/Pd catalysts for the nitrate reduction in natural water. Appl. Catal. A 425–426, 145–152 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    B. Liao, Z. Chen, Q. Qiu, X. Guo, Inhibitory effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on the electrochemical migration of tin in thin electrolyte layers containing chloride ions. Corros. Sci. 118, 190–201 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Byun, H.A. Patel, D. Thirion, C.T. Yavuz, Reversible water capture by a charged metal-free porous polymer. Polymer 126, 308–313 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    U. Evans, Electrochemical mechanism of atmospheric rusting. Nature 206, 980 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Fayeka, A. Haseeb, M. Fazal, Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Pb-free SAC 105 and SAC 305 solder alloys: a comparative study. Sains Malays. 46, 295–302 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Fire ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations