Advertisement

Effect of Cu6Sn5 nanoparticles size on the properties of Sn0.3Ag0.7Cu nano-composite solders and joints

  • Zhixian Min
  • Yu Qiu
  • Xiaowu HuEmail author
  • Haozhong Wang
Article
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

The effect of different-sized Cu6Sn5 nanoparticles on thermal behavior and interfacial reaction with Cu substrate of Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu solder was evaluated. The results showed that 30 nm and 70 nm Cu6Sn5 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using the method of different reductants, attributed to the difference of reductive ability. Under condition of the same heating parameters, 30 nm Cu6Sn5 nanoparticle owned lower sintering temperature than that of 70 nm Cu6Sn5 nanoparticle. The thermal behavior was revealed that the composite solders with the addition of different-sized Cu6Sn5 nanoparticles had slightly lower melting point and higher undercooling value, compared with original Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu solder alloy. The highest undercooling value occurred with 30 nm Cu6Sn5 nanoparticle addition. Moreover, the interfacial reactions between Cu substrate and Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu solders mixed with different-sized Cu6Sn5 nanoparticles have produced after reflowing at 250 °C and aging at 150 °C for different interval time. It was clearly found that comparing to the initial Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu/Cu solder joint, the thickness of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer on solder joint with adding nanoparticle was thinner and the growth rate was slower. The growth of interfacial IMC was suppressed with the addition of Cu6Sn5 nanoparticle, and 30 nm Cu6Sn5 nanoparticle had the strongest inhibition effect on the growth of IMC, as well as the growth of IMC grains.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 51765040), Nature Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (20161BAB206122).

References

  1. 1.
    K.M. Kumar, V. Kripesh, A.A.O. Tay, Influence of single-wall carbon nanotube addition on the microstructural and tensile properties of Sn–Pb solder alloy. J. Alloy Compd. 455, 148–158 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Schaefer, R.A. Fournelle, J. Liang, Theory for intermetallic phase growth between Cu and liquid Sn–Pb solder based on grain boundary diffusion control. J. Electron. Mater. 27, 1167–1176 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Sharif, Y.C. Chan, R.A. Islam, Effect of volume in interfacial reaction between eutectic Sn–Pb solder and Cu metallization in microelectronic packaging. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106, 120–125 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.A. Islam, B.Y. Wu, M.O. Alam et al., Investigations on microhardness of Sn–Zn based lead-free solder alloys as replacement of Sn–Pb solder. J. Alloy Compd. 392, 149–158 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.X. Wang, H. Nishikawa, Impact strength of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder bumps during isothermal aging. Microelectron. Reliab. 54, 1583–1591 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Nishikawa, N. Lwata, Formation and growth of intermetallic compound layers at the interface during laser soldering using SnAg–Cu solder on a Cu Pad. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 215, 6–11 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.Y. Zhang, S.H. Kim, T.W. Kim, Y.S. Kim, K.W. Paik, A study on the solder ball size and content effects of solder ACFs for flex-on-board (FOB) assembly applications using ultrasonic bonding. IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. 5, 9–14 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.Y. Zhang, K.W. Paik, A study on the failure mechanism and enhanced reliability of Sn58Bi solder anisotropic conductive flm joints in a pressure cooker test due to polymer viscoelastic properties and hydroswelling. IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. 6, 216–223 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Z.G. Chen, Y.W. Shi, Z.D. Xia et al., Properties of lead-free solder SnAgCu containing minute amounts of rare earth. J. Electron. Mater. 32(4), 235–243 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Zhao, L. Qi, X.M. Wang et al., Influence of Bi on microstructures evolution and mechanical properties in Sn–Ag–Cu lead-free solder. J. Alloy. Compd. 375, 196–201 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.M. Song, G.F. Lan, T.S. Lui et al., Microstructure and tensile properties of Sn–9Zn–xAg lead-free solder alloys. Scr. Mater. 48, 1047–1051 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.W. Shin, J. Yu, Creep deformation of Sn–3.5Ag–xCu and Sn–3.5Ag–xBi solder joints. J. Electron. Mater. 34, 188–195 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    X.D. Liu, Y.D. Han, H.Y. Jing et al., Effect of graphene nanosheets reinforcement on the performance of Sn–Ag–Cu lead-free solder. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 562, 25–32 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D.X. Luo, S.B. Xue, Z.Q. Li, Effects of Ga addition on microstructure and properties of Sn–0.5Ag–0.7Cu solder. J. Mater. Sci. 25, 3566–3571 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.A.A. Shnawah, S.B.M. Said, M.F.M. Sabri et al., Novel Fe-containing Sn–1Ag–0.5 Cu lead-free solder alloy with further enhanced elastic compliance and plastic energy dissipation ability for mobile products. Microelectron. Reliab. 52, 2701–2708 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H.T. Ma, J.C. Suhling, A review of mechanical properties of lead-free solders for electronic packaging. J. Mater. Sci. 44, 1141–1158 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Terashima, T. Kohno, A. Mizusawa et al., Improvement of thermal fatigue properties of Sn–Ag–Cu lead-free solder interconnects on casio’s wafer-level packages based on morphology and grain boundary character. J. Electron. Mater. 38, 33–38 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Suganuma, Advances in lead-free electronics soldering. Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 5, 55–64 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.A. El-Daly, A.E. Hammad, A. Fawzy et al., Microstructure, mechanical properties, and deformation behavior of Sn–1.0Ag–0.5Cu solder after Ni and Sb additions. Mater. Des. 43, 40–49 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    W. Kittidacha, A. Kanjanavikat, K. Vattananiyom, Effect of SAC alloy composition on drop and temp cycle reliability of BGA with NiAu pad finish. Electronics packaging technology conference, 2008 (EPTC 2008) 10th. IEEE, 2008, 1074–1079Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D.A.A. Shnawah, S.B.M. Said, M.F.M. Sabri et al., Microstructure, mechanical, and thermal properties of the Sn–1Ag–0.5Cu solder alloy bearing Fe for electronics applications. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 551, 160–168 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.H. Lee, A.M. Yu, J.H. Kim et al., Reaction properties and interfacial intermetallics for Sn–xAg–0.5 Cu solders as a function of Ag content. Met. Mater. Int. 14, 649–654 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.A.A. Shnawah, S.B.M. Said, M.F.M. Sabri et al., High-reliability low-Ag-content Sn–Ag–Cu solder joints for electronics applications. J. Electron. Mater. 41, 2631–2658 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.E. Hammad, Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of novel Sn–0.5Ag–0.7Cu solders containing small amount of Ni. Mater. Des. 50, 108–116 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F.X. Che, W.H. Zhu, E.S.W. Poh et al., The study of mechanical properties of Sn–Ag–Cu lead-free solders with different Ag contents and Ni doping under different strain rates and temperatures. J. Alloy Compd. 507, 215–224 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.E. Hammad, A.A. Ibrahiem, Enhancing the microstructure and tensile creep resistance of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder alloy by reinforcing nano-sized ZnO particles. Microelectron. Reliab. 75, 187–194 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Tang, S.M. Luo, K.Q. Wang et al., Effect of nano-TiO2 particles on growth of interfacial Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn layers in Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu–xTiO2 solder joints. J. Alloy Compd. 684, 299–309 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A.S. Gain, L.C. Zhang, Effect of Ag nanoparticles on microstructure, damping property and hardness of low melting point eutectic tin-bismuth solder. J. Mater. Sci. 28, 15718–15730 (2017)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Sun, Y.W. Sui, J.Q. Qi et al., Influence of SnO2 nanoparticles addition on microstructure, thermal analysis, and interfacial IMC growth of Sn1.0Ag0.7Cu solder. J. Electron. Mater. 46, 4197–4205 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    X.Z. Li, Y. Ma, W. Zhou et al., Effects of nanoscale Cu6Sn5 particles addition on microstructure and properties of SnBi solder alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 684, 328–334 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    X.W. Hu, Y. Qiu, X.X. Jiang, Y.L. Li, Effect of Cu6Sn5 nanoparticle on thermal behavior, mechanical properties and interfacial reaction of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder alloys. J. Mater. Sci. 29, 15983–15993 (2018)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    X.W. Hu, T. Xu, L.M. Keer et al., Microstructure evolution and shear fracture behavior of aged Sn3Ag0.5Cu/Cu solder joints. Mater. Sci. Eng. 673, 167–177 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.L. Patterson, The Scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination. Phys. Rev. 56, 978–982 (1939)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Wolfenstine, S. Campos, D. Foster et al., Nano-scale Cu6Sn5 anodes. J. Power. Sour. 109(1), 230–233 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.S. Niasari, M. Bazarganipour, F. Davar, Nano-sized Cu6Sn5 alloy prepared by a co-precipitation reductive route. Polyhedron 29(7), 1796–1800 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Trifonova, M. Wachtler, M.R. Wagner et al., Influence of the reductive preparation conditions on the morphology and on the electrochemical performance of Sn/SnSb. Solid State Ion. 168, 51–59 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Trifonova, M. Wachtler, M. Winter et al., Sn–Sb and Sn–Bi alloys as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Ionics 8, 321–328 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    L. Zhang, K.N. Tu, Structure and properties of lead-free solders bearing micro and nano particles. Mater. Sci. Eng. R 82, 1–32 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Y. Zhong, R. An, C. Wang et al., Low temperature sintering Cu6Sn5 nanoparticles for superplastic and super-uniform high temperature circuit interconnections. Small 11(33), 4097–4103 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A.K. Gain, Y.C. Chan, The influence of a small amount of Al and Ni nano-particles on the microstructure, kinetics and hardness of Sn–Ag–Cu solder on OSP-Cu pads. Intermetallics 29, 48–55 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    P. Liu, P. Yao, J. Liu, Effect of SiC nanoparticle additions on microstructure and microhardness of Sn–Ag–Cu solder alloy. J. Electron. Mater. 37(6), 874–879 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    D.C. Lin, T.S. Srivatsan, G.X. Wang et al., Understanding the influence of copper nanoparticles on thermal characteristics and microstructural development of a tin-silver solder. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 16(5), 647–654 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    S.L. Tay, A.S.M.A. Haseeb, M.R. Johan, Addition of cobalt nanoparticles into Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu lead-free solder by paste mixing. Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 23, 10–14 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J.S. Lee, K.M. Chu, R. Patzelt et al., Effects of Co addition in eutectic Sn–3.5Ag solder on shear strength and microstructural development. Microelectron. Eng. 85(7), 1577–1580 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    R.K. Chinnam, C. Fauteux, J. Neuenschwander et al., Evolution of the microstructure of Sn–Ag–Cu solder joints exposed to ultrasonic waves during solidification. Acta Mater. 59(4), 1474–1481 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    A.A. El-Daly, W.M. Desoky, T.A. Elmosalami et al., Microstructural modifications and properties of SiC nanoparticles-reinforced Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder alloy. Mater. Des. 65, 1196–1204 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    A.T. Tan, A.W. Tan, F. Yusof, Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu/SAC305/Cu solder joints under the influence of low ultrasonic power. J. Alloy. Compd. 705, 188–197 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Yang, H.J. Ji, S. Wang et al., Effects of Ag content on the interfacial reactions between liquid Sn–Ag–Cu solders and Cu substrate during soldering. J. Alloy Compd. 679, 18–25 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. Shen, M.L. Zhao, P.P. He et al., Growth behaviors of intermetallic compounds at Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu/Cu interface during isothermal and non-isothermal aging. J. Alloy Compd. 574, 451–458 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    X.W. Hu, Y.L. Li, Z.X. Min, Interfacial reaction and IMC growth between Bi-containing Sn0.7Cu solders and Cu substrate during soldering and aging. J. Alloy Compd. 582, 341–347 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    L.C. Tsao, S.Y. Chang, C.I. Lee et al., Effects of nano-Al2O3 additions on microstructure development and hardness of Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu solder. Mater. Des. 31, 4831–4835 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. Shen, Y.C. Chan, Effect of metal/ceramic nanoparticle-doped fluxes on the wettability between Sn–Ag–Cu solder and a Cu layer. J. Alloy Compd. 477, 909–914 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    L.C. Lsao, Evolution of nano-Ag3Sn particle formation on Cu–Sn intermetallic compounds of Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu composite solder/Cu during soldering. J. Alloy Compd. 509, 2326–2333 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, No. 38 Research InstituteHefeiChina
  2. 2.Key Lab for Robot & Welding Automation of Jiangxi Province, School of Mechanical & Electrical EngineeringNanchang UniversityNanchangChina

Personalised recommendations