Advertisement

Simplistic wet-chemical coalescence of ZnO with Al2O3 and SnO2 for enhanced photocatalytic and electrochemical performance

  • Hafiz Muhammad Naeem
  • Mohsin Muhyuddin
  • Raheela Rasheed
  • Ayesha Noor
  • Muhammad Aftab Akram
  • Muhammad Naeem Aashiq
  • Muhammad Abdul BasitEmail author
Article
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

A wet-chemical route for the development of Al2O3–ZnO and SnO2–ZnO hierarchical heterostructures (HHSs) was opted to enhance the photocatalytic and electrochemical properties of SnO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles. Successful coalescence of ZnO hierarchical structure with Al2O3 and SnO2 significantly increased the degradation of Congo red dye under ultraviolet irradiation. More importantly, SnO2–ZnO HHS exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than Al2O3–ZnO which was credited to its improved charge carrier generation and transfer characteristics, revealed using in-depth electrochemical spectroscopy (cyclic voltammetry and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy). In addition, electrochemical investigation affirmed the photoanodic efficacy of HHSs in polysulfide electrolyte. SnO2–ZnO HHS exhibited optimal electron–hole generation and transfer characteristics (e.g., ~ 17.5 Ω charge carrier transfer resistance at photoanode/polysulfide electrolyte interface), affirming its suitability for quantum-dot sensitized solar cells.

Notes

Supplementary material

10854_2019_1822_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2386 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    T. Robinson et al., Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresour. Technol. 77(3), 247–255 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Stolz, Basic and applied aspects in the microbial degradation of azo dyes. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56(1–2), 69–80 (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.R. Hoffmann et al., Environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis. Chem. Rev. 95(1), 69–96 (1995)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Fujishima, T.N. Rao, D.A. Tryk, Titanium dioxide photocatalysis. J. Photochem. Photobiol. C 1(1), 1–21 (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Rana et al., On the suitability of nanocrystalline ferrites as a magnetic carrier for drug delivery: functionalization, conjugation and drug release kinetics. Acta Biomater. 3(2), 233–242 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Feng et al., Effectively enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance of the Ag-modified porous ZnO nanorod photocatalyst. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 29(11), 9301–9311 (2018)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Abdelkader, N. Laouedj, A. Bekka, ZnO-assisted photocatalytic degradation of Congo Red and Benzopurpurine 4B in aqueous solution. J. Chem. Eng. Process Technol. 2, 1–9 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Marcì et al., Preparation characterization and photocatalytic activity of polycrystalline ZnO/TiO2 systems. 2. Surface, bulk characterization, and 4-nitrophenol photodegradation in liquid–solid regime. J. Phys. Chem. B 105(5), 1033–1040 (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Marcì et al., Preparation characterization and photocatalytic activity of polycrystalline ZnO/TiO2 systems. 1. Surface and bulk characterization. J. Phys. Chem. B 105(5), 1026–1032 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Chen et al., Preparation, characterization and activity evaluation of p–n junction photocatalyst p-ZnO/n-TiO2. Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 2478–2484 (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Sakthivel et al., Enhancement of photocatalytic activity by semiconductor heterojunctions: α-Fe2O3, WO3 and CdS deposited on ZnO. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 148(1), 283–293 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Nayak et al., CdS–ZnO composite nanorods: synthesis, characterization and application for photocatalytic degradation of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid. Appl. Surf. Sci. 254(22), 7215–7218 (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Krishnakumar, B. Subash, M. Swaminathan, AgBr–ZnO—an efficient nano-photocatalyst for the mineralization of Acid Black 1 with UV light. Sep. Purif. Technol. 85, 35–44 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Subash et al., An efficient nanostructured Ag2S–ZnO for degradation of Acid Black 1 dye under day light illumination. Sep. Purif. Technol. 96, 204–213 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Ismail, L. Bousselmi, O. Zahraa, Photocatalytic behavior of WO3-loaded TiO2 systems in the oxidation of salicylic acid. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 222(2), 314–322 (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Yu et al., Preparation of WO3/ZnO composite photocatalyst and its photocatalytic performance. Chin. J. Catal. 32(3), 555–565 (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Z. Maolin et al., Novel preparation of nanosized ZnO–SnO2 with high photocatalytic activity by homogeneous co-precipitation method. Mater. Lett. 59(28), 3641–3644 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. Wang et al., Enhanced photocatalytic performance of nanosized coupled ZnO/SnO2 photocatalysts for methyl orange degradation. J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 168(1), 47–52 (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. Cun et al., Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of nano-sized ZnO/SnO2 coupled photocatalysts. Appl. Catal. B 39(3), 269–279 (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Zheng et al., Network structured SnO2/ZnO heterojunction nanocatalyst with high photocatalytic activity. Inorg. Chem. 48(5), 1819–1825 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y. Shi et al., Ultrarapid sonochemical synthesis of ZnO hierarchical structures: from fundamental research to high efficiencies up to 6.42% for quasi-solid dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem. Mater. 25(6), 1000–1012 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Kumar, R. Prakash, V. Kumar, A novel yellowish white Dy3+ activated α-Al2O3 phosphor: photoluminescence and optical studies. Funct. Mater. Lett. (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1142/S1793604715500617 Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    L. Luo et al., Electrospun ZnO–SnO2 composite nanofibers with enhanced electrochemical performance as lithium-ion anodes. Ceram. Int. 42(9), 10826–10832 (2016)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.A. Chaaya et al., Tuning optical properties of Al2O3/ZnO nanolaminates synthesized by atomic layer deposition. J Phys Chem C 118(7), 3811–3819 (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.I. Aziz et al., Evolution of photovoltaic and photocatalytic activity in anatase-TiO2 under visible light via simplistic deposition of CdS and PbS quantum-dots. Mater. Chem. Phys. 229, 508–513 (2019)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M.A. Abbas et al., Revival of solar paint concept: air-processable solar paints for the fabrication of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. J Phys Chem C 121(33), 17658–17670 (2017)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D. Punnoose et al., The influence of in situ deposition techniques on PbS seeded CdS/CdSe for enhancing the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells. J. Electroanal. Chem. 773, 27–38 (2016)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.J. Little et al., A novel enzymatic bioelectrode system combining a redox hydrogel with a carbon NanoWeb. Chem. Commun. 47(31), 8886–8888 (2011)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. Chen et al., Synthesis and photocatalytic application of Au/Ag nanoparticle-sensitized ZnO films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 273, 82–88 (2013)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ramachandran, D., et al., Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods, in 2013 International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials and Emerging Engineering Technologies (ICANMEET) (IEEE, 2013)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Y. Zhang et al., Low-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition of a “green” single-source inorganic precursor in air. J. Cryst. Growth 280(1–2), 250–254 (2005)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Hamrouni et al., Sol–gel synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnO–SnO2 nanocomposites. J. Mol. Catal. A 390, 133–141 (2014)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    F.-T. Li et al., N-doped P25 TiO2–amorphous Al2O3 composites: one-step solution combustion preparation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. J. Hazard. Mater. 239, 118–127 (2012)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    W.-X. Gong et al., Adsorption of fluoride onto different types of aluminas. Chem. Eng. J. 189–190, 126–133 (2012)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    X. Qu, D. Jia, Controlled growth and optical properties of Al3+ doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorod clusters. Mater. Lett. 63(3–4), 412–414 (2009)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    F. Mughal et al., Multiple energy applications of quantum-dot sensitized TiO2/PbS/CdS and TiO2/CdS/PbS hierarchical nanocomposites synthesized via p-SILAR technique. Chem. Phys. Lett. 717, 69–76 (2019)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Rashad, N.M. Shaalan, A.M. Abd-Elnaiem, Degradation enhancement of methylene blue on ZnO nanocombs synthesized by thermal evaporation technique. Desalin. Water Treat. 57(54), 26267–26273 (2016)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. Hankare et al., Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methyl red and thymol blue using titania–alumina–zinc ferrite nanocomposite. Appl. Catal. B 107(3–4), 333–339 (2011)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M.T. Uddin et al., Nanostructured SnO2–ZnO heterojunction photocatalysts showing enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic dyes. Inorg. Chem. 51(14), 7764–7773 (2012)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    S.H. Li, Z.F. Liu, Enhanced photocatalytic activity of core shell SnO2/ZnO photocatalysts. Mater. Technol. 28(4), 234–237 (2013)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Y. Bu et al., Highly efficient photocatalytic performance of graphene–ZnO quasi-shell–core composite material. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(23), 12361–12368 (2013)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. Sagadevan, J. Podder, Investigation on structural, surface morphological and dielectric properties of Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles. Mater. Res. 19, 420–425 (2016)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    L. Fang et al., Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on Au nanoparticles-functionalized 3D hierarchically ZnO nanostructures and its application to bioelectrochemical glucose sensor. Sens. Actuators B 222, 1096–1102 (2016)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. Tajik et al., Nanostructured mixed transition metal oxides for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors: facile synthetic strategy. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 42(17), 12384–12395 (2017)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    F. Zhang et al., Immobilization of uricase on ZnO nanorods for a reagentless uric acid biosensor. Anal. Chim. Acta 519(2), 155–160 (2004)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    N. Matinise et al., ZnO nanoparticles via Moringa oleifera green synthesis: physical properties and mechanism of formation. Appl. Surf. Sci. 406, 339–347 (2017)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    F. Ren, S. Li, C. He, Electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells assessed with cyclic voltammetry. Sci. China Mater. 58(6), 490–495 (2015)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    M.A. Abbas et al., Enhanced performance of PbS-sensitized solar cells via controlled successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(15), 9752–9760 (2015)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J.B. Zhang et al., Influence of highly efficient PbS counter electrode on photovoltaic performance of CdSe quantum dots-sensitized solar cells. J. Solid State Electrochem. 17(11), 2909–2915 (2013)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    M. Basit et al., Improved light absorbance and quantum-dot loading by macroporous TiO2 photoanode for PbS quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Mater. Chem. Phys. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2017.03.057 Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    S. Kumar, S.-M. Chen, Electroanalysis of NADH using conducting and redox active polymer/carbon nanotubes modified electrodes—a review. Sensors 8(2), 739–766 (2008)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Y. Bu, Z. Chen, Effect of hydrogen treatment on the photoelectrochemical properties of quantum dots sensitized ZnO nanorod array. J. Power Sources 272, 647–653 (2014)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Y. Bu et al., High-efficiency photoelectrochemical properties by a highly crystalline CdS-sensitized ZnO nanorod array. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(11), 5097–5104 (2013)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    S. Vatavu et al., A comparative study of (ZnO, In2O3:SnO2, SnO2)/CdS/CdTe/(Cu/)Ni heterojunctions. Thin Solid Films 535, 244–248 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringInstitute of Space TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME)National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)IslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Institute of Chemical SciencesBahauddin Zakariya University (BZU)MultanPakistan

Personalised recommendations