Influence of nanoparticle size on nucleation of electroactive phase and energy storage behaviour of zinc ferrite/ poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite
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The incorporation of different size of nanoparticles in polymer matrix plays a dominating role in determining the overall structural, microstructural and electrical properties of the fabricated composites. In this paper, an investigation was done in order to establish the effect of incorporating different size of zinc ferrite (ZF) nanoparticles in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. The incorporated spherical ZF nanoparticle induced nucleation of electroactive phases in PVDF matrix by means of electrostatic interaction between the surface charge of the filler and the dipoles of PVDF. The fraction of nucleated electroactive phases is strongly dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. There is a critical size of the nanoparticle, below which the nucleation efficiency of the filler diminishes as it may be swelled by the polymer macromolecules. On the other hand, if the filler size is too large, there is a possibility of formation of mixed conformation of polar and nonpolar phase. Further, this behaviour was correlated with the electrical response of composite where nanoparticle with the critical radius incorporated PVDF composite, exhibited maximum dielectric and ferroelectric property. Finally, a number of participating dipoles of polymer chain interact with ZF nanoparticle of different size were calculated by a model analysis and were represented schematically.
Authors wish to acknowledge the Director, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI) Kolkata for his kind inspiration to publish this work. One of the authors, I. Chinya thanks CSIR, Govt. of India for providing her senior research fellowship and AcSIR-CSIR-CGCRI for the academic support. The authors thankfully acknowledge Dr. Dipten Bhattacharya, Senior Principal Scientist, Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) and his group for magnetic measurement and related discussion. The work has been done as an associated research work under MeitY funded three years Project GAP0351.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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