Conversion mechanism of conductivity and properties of nitrogen implanted ZnO single crystals induced by post-annealing
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In this paper, the conversion mechanism of conductivity and properties of nitrogen (70 keV, 1 × 1016 cm−2) implanted ZnO single crystals induced by post-annealing in a temperature ranging from 500 °C to 800 °C have been investigated by Hall, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The results indicate that the sample converts to p-type conductivity as annealed at 650 °C. For the as-implanted sample, different type of nitrogen (N) local states are detected, including substitutional N atom and N2 molecules on O site [No and (N2)o], N–O, N–H, and N–C complexes. However, their thermal stabilities display significant difference upon thermal annealing. Differing from the initial ZnO bulk, the low-temperature PL spectrum of the post-annealed N implanted ZnO sample consists of two dominant peaks located at 3.105 eV and 3.220 eV, respectively. The former is attributed to radiative electron transition from the conduction band to the Zn vacancy (VZn) acceptor level, and the latter is assigned to recombination of the donor–acceptor pair (DAP). Our results suggest that the VZn together with the No acceptors are responsible for p-type conductivity of N doped ZnO.
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51502030 and 51472038), SKLMT-ZZKT-2017M15, the Nature Science Foundation of Chongqing (Grant Nos. cstc2017jcyjAX0393, cstc2018jcyjAX0450, cstc2015jcyjA50035 and cstc2015jcyjA1660), and the Scientific and Technological Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission (Grant Nos. KJ1501112, KJKJQN201800102), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. 2018CDJDWL0011, 106112017CDJQJ328839, 106112016CDJZR288805 and 106112015CDJXY300002), the China Post-doctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M600726), the opening project of Chongqing Key Laboratory of Micro /Nano Materials Engineering and Technology (Grant No. KFJJ1301) and the Sharing Fund of Large-scale Equipment of Chongqing University (Grant Nos. 201612150094, 201712150005, 201712150006 and 201712150010).
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