Influence of nano-metric Al2O3 particles addition on thermal behavior, microstructural and tensile characteristics of hypoeutectic Sn-5.0Zn-0.3Cu Pb-free solder alloy

  • E. A. EidEmail author
  • A. B. El-Basaty
  • A. M. Deghady
  • Saleh Kaytbay
  • Abbass Nassar


Sn-5.0Zn-0.3 wt% Cu (SZC-503) plain solder and Sn-5.0Zn-0.3Cu-0.5 wt% Al2O3 (SZC-Al2O3) composite solder have been investigated. The differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) measurements revealed that both alloys have two thermal peaks. The melting and liquids temperature of the first peak of both solders were less than 1.0 °C. However, the melting and liquids temperatures of second peak for composite solder increased by 3.02 and 3.37 °C, respectively than those of plain solder alloy. Moreover, the undercooling range (UCR) reduced after addition of nano-metric Al2O3 particles due to its high melting temperature and sacrifices them as additional nucleation seeds to initiate the solidification process. The microstructural characteristic was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The refinement of β-Sn grains of SZC-Al2O3 composite alloy can be attributed to the pinning effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles on grain boundaries. In addition, a limited growth of IMC correlated to the adsorption theory of nano-metric Al2O3 particles of surface-active materials. The uniformed distribution of refined β-Sn grain and IMC in SZC-Al2O3 enhanced the yield stress (YS) by ~ 56% and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) by ~ 76.2% but reduced the ductility by ~ 32%. Moreover, the experimental value of the yield stress of composite solder is very close to that calculated by simple simulation program which included the different strengthens mechanism of composite alloys.


  1. 1.
    M. Abtewa, G. Selvaduray, Lead-free Solders in Microelectronics. Mater. Sci. Eng. R 27, 95–141 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.J. Puttlitz, K.A. Stalter, Handbook of lead-free solder technology for microelectronic assemblies (Marcel Dekker, New York, Inc.2004), pp. 292–294Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K.N. Subramanian, Lead-free electronic solders, a special issue of the journal of materials science: materials in electronics, (Springer, Berlin, 2007) pp. 191–210Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. Shohji, T. Yoshida, T. Takahashi, S. Hioki, Comparison of low-melting lead free solders in tensile properties with Sn-Pb eutectic solder. J. Mater. Sci. 15, 219–223 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.B. El Basaty, A.M. Deghady, E.A. Eid, Influence of small addition of antimony (Sb) on thermal behavior, microstructural and tensile properties of Sn-9.0Zn-0.5Al Pb-free solder alloy”. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 701, 245–253 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    X. Wei, H. Huang, L. Zhou, M. Zhang, X. Liu, On the advantages of using a hypoeutectic Sn–Zn as lead-free solder material. Mater. Lett. 61, 655–658 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Zhao, G. Sheng, L. Wu, X. Yuan, Interfacial characteristics and microstructural evolution of Sn6.5Zn solder/Cu substrate joints during aging. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 22, 1954–1960 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Ren, I.J. Wilding, M.N. Collins, Alloying influences on low melt temperature Sn-Zn and Sn-Bi solder alloys for electronic interconnections. J. Alloy. Compd. 665, 251–260 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Ren, M.N. Collins, The effects of antimony additions on microstructures, thermal and mechanical properties of Sn-8Zn-3Bi alloys. Mater. Des. 119, 133–140 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Wang, D. Li, J. Wang, X. Wang, C. Dong Comparative study on the wettability and interfacial structure in Sn–xZn/Cu and Sn/Cu–xZn system. J. Mater. Sci. 28, 1631–1643 (2017)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.A. El-Daly, W.M. Desoky, A.F. Saad, N.A. Mansor, E.H. Lotfy, H.M. Abd-Elmoniem, H. Hashem, The effect of undercooling on the microstructure and tensile properties of hypoeutectic Sn–6.5Zn–xCu Pb-free solders. Mater. Des. 80, 152–162 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.A. El-Daly, A.E. Hammad, G.A. Al-Ganainy, A.A. Ibrahiem, Design of lead-free candidate alloys for low-temperature soldering applications based on thehypoeutectic Sn–6.5Zn alloy. Mater. Des. 56, 594–603 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.A. El-Daly, A.E. Hammad, G.A. Al-Ganainy, A.A. Ibrahiem, Enhancing mechanical response of hypoeutectic Sn–6.5Zn solder alloy using Ni and Sb additions1. Mater. Des. 52, 966–973 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.A. El-Daly, H.A. Hashem, N. Radwan, F. El-Tantawy, T.R. Dalloul, N.A. Mansour, H.M. Abd-Elmoniem, E.H. Lotfy, Robust effects of Bi doping on microstructure development and mechanical properties of hypoeutectic Sn–6.5Zn solder alloy. J. Mater. Sci. 27, 2950–2962 (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G.S. AlGanainy, A.A. ElDaly, A. Fawzy, N. Hussein, Effect of adding nanometric ZnO particles on thermal, microstructure and tensile creep properties of Sn–6.5 wt% Zn–3 wt% In solder alloy. J. Mater. Sci.,
  16. 16.
    L.C. Tsao, S.Y. Chang, C.I. Lee, W.H. Sun, C.H. Huang, Effects of nano Al2O3 additions on microstructure development and hardness of Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu solder. Mater. Des. 31, 4831–4835 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S.Y. Chang, L.C. Tsao, M.W. Wu, C.W. Chen, The morphology and kinetic evolution of intermetallic compounds at Sn–Ag–Cu solder/Cu and Sn–Ag–Cu-0.5Al2O3 composite solder/Cu interface during soldering reaction. J. Mater. Sci. 23, 100–107 (2012)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.L. Chuang, L.C. Tsao, Effects of nanoparticles on the thermal, microstructural and mechanical properties of novel Sn3.5Ag0.5Zn composite solders. J. Mater. Sci. (2018) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Z. Zhao, L. Liu, H.S. Choi, J. Cai, Q. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Zou, Effect of nano-Al2O3 reinforcement on the microstructure and reliability of Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder joints. Microelectron. Reliab. 60, 126–134 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    W. Xing, X. Yu, H. Li, L. Ma, W. Zuo, P. Dong, W. Wang, M. Ding, Effect of nano Al2O3 additions on the interfacial behavior and mechanical properties of eutectic Sn-9Zn solder on low temperature wetting and soldering of 6061 aluminum alloys. J. Alloy. Compd. 695, 574–582 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Ding, W. Xing, X. Yu, L. Ma, W. Zuo, Z. Ji, Effect of micro alumina particles additions on the interfacial behavior and mechanical properties of Sn-9Zn-1.0Al2O3 nanoparticles on low temperature wetting and soldering of 6061 aluminum alloys. J. Alloy. Compd. 739, 481–488 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Y. Lu, L. Ma, S. Li, W. Zuo, Z. Ji, M. Ding, Effect of Cu element addition on the interfacial behavior and mechanical properties of Sn-9Zn-1.0Al2O3 soldering 6061 aluminum alloys: First-principle calculations and experimental research. J. Alloy. Compd. 765, 128–139 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.N. Fouda, E.A. Eid, Influence of ZnO nano-particles addition on thermal analysis microstructure evolution and tensile behavior of Sn-5.0 wt% Sb-0.5 wt% Cu lead-free solder alloy. Mater. Sci.Eng. 632, 82–87 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Wu, S. Xue, J. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Han, L. Wang, Recent progress of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solders bearing alloy elements and nanoparticles in electronic packaging. J. Mater. Sci. 27, 12729–12763 (2016)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y.-C. Huang, S.-W. Chen, K.-S. Wu, Size and Substrate Effects upon Undercooling of Pb-Free Solders. J. Electron. Mater. 39(1), 109–114 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T.G. Sousa, V. Sordi, L.Brandão “Dislocation Density and Texture in Copper Deformed by Cold Rolling and ECAP”. Mater. Res. 21(1), e20170515 (2018). [ Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    E.A. Eid, A.N. Fouda, E-S.M. Duraia, Effect of Adding 0.5 wt% ZnO Nanoparticles, Temperature and Strain Rate on Tensile Properties of Sn-5.0 wt% Sb-0.5 wt% Cu (SSC505) Lead Free Solder Alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng. 657, 104–114 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    F.A. Mirza, D.L. Chen, A unified model for the prediction of yield strength in particulate-reinforced metal matrix nanocomposites. Materials 8, 5138–5153 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. A. Eid
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. B. El-Basaty
    • 2
  • A. M. Deghady
    • 1
  • Saleh Kaytbay
    • 3
  • Abbass Nassar
    • 4
  1. 1.Basic Science DepartmentHigher Technological Institute10th of Ramadan CityEgypt
  2. 2.Basic Science Department, Faculty of Industrial EducationHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Mechanical Engineering Department, Benha Faculty of Engineering, &Higher Institute of Engineering and TechnologyBenha University,Mahalla Al–Kubra, BenhaEgypt
  4. 4.Productivity and Vocational Training Department, Al Amirya CenterMinistry of Trade and IndustryCairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations