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Highly oxidized and exfoliated graphene using a modified Tour approach

  • Dulce K. Becerra-PaniaguaEmail author
  • M. Sotelo-Lerma
  • Hailin Hu
Article
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

A comparative study of different chemical modified methods of graphene oxide (GO) synthesis is described, using natural graphite as starting material. The first one (GO-1) is an improved Hummers method without using NaNO3. The second one (GO-2) is the reported “modified Hummers method”. The third one (GO-3) is our variation of the Tour method, in which we use a different protective agent, H3BO3, instead of the commonly used H3PO4 in the original Tour method. With GO-3 method, we are able to reduce significantly the oxidation time of graphite by increasing significantly the amount of oxidizing agent (KMnO4). The fourth one (GO-4) is a combination of GO-2 and GO-3. The properties of GO powders were analyzed by UV–Visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that with GO-3 method natural graphite has been highly oxidized and becomes GO with a 9.20 Å interlayer space and a carbon to oxygen ratio of about 0.8. The new protective agent has given a good exfoliation, leading double layers of graphene oxide sheets with more intact graphene basal planes. Comparing with the original Tour method, our products from GO-3 method are obtained in much less time of production and show a high-quality of GO sheets with a selected number of layers.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the technical support from Rogelio Morán-Elvira for HR-SEM, Maria Luisa Ramón-García for XRD, Samuel Tehuacanero-Cuapa for HR-TEM and Roberto Mora Monroy for XPS characterization. We are thankful to Dagoberto Cabrera-German from the Universidad de Sonora for the technical assistance in XPS. Dulce K. Becerra-Paniagua acknowledges Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT-Mexico) for her PhD scholarship. Financial supports from Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica (PAPIIT)-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)(IN102619), CONACyT-Secretaría de Energía (SENER)-Centro Mexicano de Innovación en Energía Solar (CeMIE-Sol) (2013-2, P27) and CONACyT-Fronteras de la Ciencia 2016–2024 are acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Energías RenovablesUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoTemixcoMexico
  2. 2.Universidad de SonoraHermosilloMexico

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