Advertisement

Anisotropic electrical and optical studies of organic biphenyl single crystal grown by modified Czochralski technique

  • Sumit Bhukkal
  • Nidhi Sinha
  • Sonu Kumar
  • Binay Kumar
Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

Czochralski growth technique was used to grow organic single crystal of biphenyl along < − 230 > direction. The problems of excessive evaporation due to high vapour pressure and low melting point in BP was overcome by suitable modifications in the CZ set up. The monoclinic symmetry with space group P21/c for the grown crystal was confirmed by powder as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction. Intermolecular interactions present in the grown single crystal were analysed by Hirshfeld surface and 2-dimensional fingerprint plot. The biphenyl crystal (size 8 × 5 × 1.8 mm3) showed a transparency of 39% along < − 113 > and 3% along < − 230 > directions with a lower cut off wavelength of 311 nm and 307 nm, respectively. Photoluminescence emission peaks were observed at 494 nm and 488 nm in the two directions. Appreciable change in the dielectric constant (~ 56–~ 114) was observed along these two directions at RT which were frequency independent. The functional groups and thermal behaviour of BP crystals were also reported. Mechanical behaviour was explained with the help of void study and indentation technique. The anisotropic electrical and optical behaviour of BP can be used to fabricate devices with tunable output.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are thankful for financial supports from DST (EMR/2015/000385) and DRDO (ARMREB/MAA/2015/163) are thankfully acknowledged. Sumit Bhukkal and Sonu Kumar are thankful to UGC for JRF/SRF. Dr. Nidhi Sinha is thankful to the Principal, SGTB Khalsa College for encouragement for research work.

References

  1. 1.
    R.W.I. de Boer, M.E. Gershenson, A.F. Morpurgo, V. Podzorov, Phys. Status Solidi 201, 1302 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Jiang, H. Dong, W. Hu, J. Mater. Chem. 20, 4994 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Yadav, N. Sinha, B. Kumar, CrystEngComm 16, 10700 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T.T. Basiev, E.V. Zharikov, V.V. Osiko, Crystallogr. Rep. 47, S15 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Yadav, N. Sinha, N. Tyagi, B. Kumar, Cryst. Growth Des. 15, 4908 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Aravinth, G. Anandha Babu, P. Ramasamy, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 110, 1333 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Jazbinsek, L. Mutter, P. Gunter, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1298 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Raghavan, P. Santhana, Ramasamy, Crystal Growth Processes and Methods (Kru Publications, Kumbakonam, 2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Kumar, B. Kumar, CrystEngComm 20, 624 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Sadhasivam, N.P. Rajesh, Spectrochim. Acta A 130, 263 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Suthan, N.P. Rajesh, J. Cryst. Growth 312, 3156 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Prabhakaran, R.R. Babu, P. Velusamy, K. Ramamurthi, Mater. Res. Bull. 46, 1781 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H.J. Human, J.P. Van Der Eerden, L.A.M.J. Jetten, J.G.M. Odekerken, J. Cryst. Growth 51, 589 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Winn, M.F. Doherty, AIChE J. 44, 2501 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Trotter, Acta Crystallogr. 14, 1135 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Q.A. Acton, Biphenyl Compounds-Advances in Research and Application. Ph D General Edtior. ISBN: 978-1-481-67357-0 (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Hengstenberg, H. Mark, Z. Krist. 72, 301 (1929)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G.L. Clark, L.W. Picket, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 16, 20 (1930)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Dhar, Indian J. Phys. 7, 43 (1932)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Docherty, K.J. Roberts, J. Cryst. Growth 88, 159 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Hargreaves, S.H. Rizvi, Acta Crystallogr. 15, 365 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. Hadjittofis, M.A. Isbell, V. Karde, S. Varghese, C. Ghoroi, J.Y.Y. Heng, Pharm. Res. 35, 100 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C.-L. Lu, H. Lin, C.-M. Liu, Y. Huang, T. Lu, T. Liu, H. Hsiao, C. Chen, J. Kuo, K. Tu, NPG Asia Mater. 6, 135 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    V. Zelezny, D.B. Tanner, K. Kamaras, L.P. Kozeeva, A.A. Aavlyuk, Z. Phys. B 96, 313 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.A. Spackman, J.J. McKinnon, CrystEngComm 4, 378 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.J. McKinnon, D. Jayatilaka, M.A. Spackman, Chem. Commun. 37, 3814 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.J. McKinnon, M.A. Spackman, A.S. Mitchell, Acta Crystallogr. B 60, 627 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. Tyagi, N. Sinha, H. Yadav, B. Kumar, RSC Adv. 6, 24565 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Kumar, N. Sinha, S. Bhukkal, B. Kumar, J. Mater. Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-018-0483-1 (2018)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. Inan, U. Halici, IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 7, 577 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Mangaiyarkarasi, A.T. Ravichandran, K. Anitha, A. Manivel, J. Mol. Struct. 1155, 758 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Dalal, N. Sinha, B. Kumar, Opt. Mater. 37, 457 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. Karuppasamy, M. Senthil Pandian, P. Ramasamy, S.K. Das, Optik 156, 707 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Yadav, N. Sinha, S. Goel, A. Hussain, B. Kumar, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 49, 2053 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    K. Ramachandran, P. Vijayakumar, A. Raja, V. Mohankumar, G. Vinitha, M. Senthil Pandian, P. Ramasamy, J. Mater. Sci. 29, 8571 (2018)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    O. Sahin, O. Uzun, U. Kolemen, N. Ucar, Mater. Charact. 58, 197 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Sangwal, A. Kłos, Cryst. Res. Technol. 40, 429 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.J. Turner, J.J. McKinnon, D. Jayatilaka, M.A. Spackman, CrystEngComm 13, 1804 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. Kumar, N. Sinha, H. Yadav, B. Kumar, J. Mater. Sci. 51, 7614 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. Yadav, N. Sinha, S. Goel, B. Singh, I. Bdikin, A. Saini, K. Gopalaiah, B. Kumar, Acta Crystallogr. B 73, 347 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Dalal, N. Sinha, H. Yadav, B. Kumar, RSC Adv. 5, 57735 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Crystal Lab, Department of Physics and AstrophysicsUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electronics, SGTB Khalsa CollegeUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations