Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 29, Issue 21, pp 18088–18097 | Cite as

Increased homogenous clusters in superconducting paths with diffusion of optimum Ni impurities into Bi-2223 crystal

  • T. Turgay
  • G. Yildirim
  • Y. ZalaogluEmail author


This study deals with variations of electrical and superconducting features of Bi-2223 superconducting materials exposed to Ni impurity diffusion at different annealing temperatures (650 °C ≤ T ≤ 850 °C) by temperature-dependent resistivity measurements. It is found that the characteristic properties improve with annealing temperature up to 700 °C as a result of enhancement in the truly-metallic characteristics, interaction quality, formation of Cooper-pairs and overlapping of Cu-3d and O-2p wave functions. Similarly, the optimum annealing temperature of 700 °C diminishes the omnipresent flaws and structural defects. Additionally, we design a strong theory (Percolation) to discuss the role of nickel impurities on fundamental aspects of material science and physical quantities as regards stabilization of superconductivity in the homogeneous regions and formation of superconducting clusters in the paths for the first time. Further, we develop an empirical relationship between the structural problems and transition temperatures to obtain a superconductor exhibiting the highest electrical and superconducting features.



This study is partially supported by Abant Izzet Baysal University Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit (Project No.: 2014.09.05.685).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Fine Arts ArchitectureSakarya UniversitySakaryaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAbant Izzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsOsmaniye Korkut Ata UniversityOsmaniyeTurkey

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