Advertisement

Solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors codoped with Na and F

Article
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

Na and F codoping was utilized to realize high-performance ZnO thin-film transistors derived from sol–gel solution process. The effect of NaF doping concentration on the electrical properties of ZnO thin-film transistors annealed at 350 °C was investigated. Films with 10 at.% doping exhibited excellent performance with an average mobility of 70.98 cm2 V−1 s−1 and a high Ion/Ioff ratio on the order of 106. The X-ray photon spectroscopy exhibited oxygen bound with oxide lattice with and without vacancy related peak position shifted towards lower energy side when doped at 10 at.% and did not show the hydroxyl group on the NaF doped ZnO surface which indicates the improved performance of the thin-film transistors devices. The electrical performance of the devices also changed considerably as the thickness of the NaF-doped ZnO layer increased. Increasing the grain size and realizing a smooth surface morphology by varying the NaF concentration were found to enhance the thin-film transistors mobility.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by International Collaborative Research and Development Program funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE, Republic of Korea) (N0002626). This work was also supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20174010201490). This research was also supported by the 2018 KU Brain Pool of Konkuk University.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Hosono, Ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors: material design, carrier transport, and device application. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 851–858 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Nomura, H. Ohta, K. Ueda, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, H. Hosono, Thin-film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor. Science 300, 1269–1272 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Jo, K.H. Kim, J. Kim, S.G. Ban, Y.H. Kim, S.K. Park, High-mobility and hysteresis-free flexible oxide thin-film transistors and circuits by using bilayer sol–gel gate dielectrics. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 2679–2687 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Kodzasa, T. Nobeshima, K. Kuribara, M. Yoshida, Thin film transistor performance of amorphous indium–zinc oxide semiconductor thin film prepared by ultraviolet photoassisted sol-gel processing. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 05GD01 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Wang, V. Mirkhani, K. Yapabandara, R. Cheng, G. Hernandez, M.P. Khana, M.S. Sultan, S. Uprety, L. Shen, S. Zou, P. Xu, C.D. Ellis, J.A. Sellers, M.C. Hamilton, G. Niu, M.H. Sk, M. Park, Electrical characteristics and density of states of thin-film transistors based on sol-gel derived ZnO channel layers with different annealing temperatures. J. Appl. Phys. 123, 161503 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.G. Kim, M.G. Kanatzidis, A. Facchetti, T.J. Marks, Low-temperature fabrication of high-performance metal oxide thin-film electronics via combustion processing. Nat. Mater. 10, 382–388 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.F. Carcia, R.S. McLean, M.H. Reilly, G. Nunes, Transparent ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering. Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1117 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Nishii, F.M. Hossain, A. Takagi, T. Aita, K. Saikusa, Y. Ohmaki, I. Ohkubo, S. Kishimoto, A. Ohtomo, T. Fukumura, F. Matsukura,. Y. Ohno, H. Kionuma, H. Ohno, M. Kawasaki, High mobility thin film transistors with transparent ZnO channels. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L347 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y.Y. Lin, C.C. Hsu, M.H. Tseng, J.J. Shyue, F.Y. Tsai, Stable and high-performance flexible ZnO thin-film transistors by atomic layer deposition. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 22610–22617 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Huby, S. Ferrari, E. Guziewicz, M. Godlewski, V. Osinniy, Electrical behavior of zinc oxide layers grown by low temperature atomic layer deposition. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023502 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.B.M. Cross, M.M. De Souza, Investigating the stability of zinc oxide thin film transistors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 263513 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Vygranenko, K. Wang, A. Nathan, Stable indium oxide thin-film transistors with fast threshold voltage recovery. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 263508 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Bang, S. Lee, J. Park, S. Park, W. Jeong, H.J. Jeon, Investigation of the effects of interface carrier concentration on ZnO thin film transistors fabricated by atomic layer deposition. J. Phys. D 42, 235102 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.Y. Park, B.J. Kim, K. Kim, M.S. Kang, K.H. Lim, T.I. Lee, J.M. Myoung, H.K. Baik, J.H. Cho, Y.S. Kim, Low-temperature, solution-processed and alkali metal doped ZnO for high-performance thin-film transistors. Adv. Mater. 24, 834–838 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.J. Ku, Z. Duan, P.I. Reyes, Y. Lu, Y. Xu, C.L. Hsueh, E. Garfunkel, Effects of Mg on the electrical characteristics and thermal stability of MgxZn1–xO thin film transistors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 123511 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.Y. Park, K. Kim, K.H. Lim, E. Lee, S. Kim, H. Kim, Y.S. Kim, Alkali earth metal dopants for high performance and aqueous-derived ZnO TFT. RSC Adv. 3, 21339–21342 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Kim, S.Y. Park, K.H. Lim, C.H. Shin, J.M. Myung, Y.S. Kim, Low temperature and solution-processed Na-doped zinc oxide transparent thin film transistors with reliable electrical performance using methanol developing and surface engineering. J. Mater. Chem. 22, 23120–23128 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Ahlswede, J. Hanisch, M. Powalla, Comparative study of the influence of LiF, NaF, and KF on the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163504 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L.W. Wang, F. Wu, D.X. Tian, W.J. Li, L. Fang, C.Y. Kong, M. Zhou, Effects of Na content on structural and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method. J. Alloys Compd. 623, 367–373 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Lu, K. Huang, J. Zhu, X. Chen, X. Song, Z. Sun, Preparation and characterization of Na-doped ZnO thin films by sol–gel method. Physica B 405, 3167–3171 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.K. Kim, S.A. Kim, C.H. Lee, H.J. Lee, S.Y. Jeong, The structural and optical behaviors of K-doped ZnO/Al2O3 (0001) films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 419–421 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Kumar, R.M. Mehra, A. Wakahara, M. Ishida, A. Yoshida, Epitaxial growth of high quality ZnO:Al film on silicon with a thin ϒ-Al2O3 buffer layer. J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3837–3842 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    H.J. Jeon, S.G. Lee, H. Kim, J.S. Park, Enhanced mobility of Li-doped ZnO thin film transistors fabricated by mist chemical vapor deposition. Appl. Surf. Sci. 301, 358 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. Knuyt, C. Quaeyhaegens, J.D. Haen, I.M. Stals, A model for thin film texture evolution driven by surface energy effects. Phys. Status Solidi B 195, 179–193 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.E. Jimenez-Gonzalez, J.A.S. Urueta, R.J. Suarez-Parra, Optical and electrical characteristics of aluminum-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol gel technique. J. Cryst. Growth 192, 430–438 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    B.E. Sernelius, K.F. Berggren, Z.C. Jin, I. Hamberg, C.G. Granqvist, Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping. Phys. Rev. B 37, 10244 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Ilican, Effect of Na doping on the microstructures and optical properties of ZnO nanorods. J. Alloys Compd. 553, 225 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Chang, Z. Lin, M. Lin, C. Zhu, J. Zgang, J. Wu, Solution processed F doped ZnO (ZnO:F) for thin film transistors and improved stability through co-doping with alkali metals. J. Mater. Chem. C 3, 1787–1793Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. Liu, M. Gu, X. Liu, S. Huang, C. Ni, First-principles study of fluorine-doped zinc oxide. Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 122101 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S.Y. Park, B.J. Kim, K. Kim, M.S. Kang, K.H. Lim, T.I. Lee, M. Myoung, H.K. Baik, J.H. Cho, Y.S. Kim, Low-temperature, solution-processed and alkali metal doped ZnO for high-performance thin-film transistors. Adv. Mater. 24, 834–838 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S.B. Orlinskii, J. Schmidt, P.G. Baranov, D.M. Hofmann, C.D. Donega, A. Meijerink, Probing the wave function of shallow Li and Na donors in ZnO nanoparticles. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047603 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T.S. Kang, J.H. Koo, T.Y. Kim, J.P. Hong, Electrical and structural analyses of solution-processed Li-doped ZnO thin film transistors exposed to ambient conditions. Appl. Phys. Exp. 6, 011101 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Chang, Z. Lin, C. Zhu, C. Chi, J. Zhang, J. Wu, Solution-processed LiF-doped ZnO films for high performance low temperature field effect transistors and inverted solar cells. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 6687–6693 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y.H. Chang, M.J. Yu, R.P. Lin, C.P. Hsu, T.H. Houa, Abnormal positive bias stress instability of In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors with low-temperature Al2O3 gate dielectric. Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 033502 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    W.H. Jeong, G.H. Kim, H.S. Shin, B.D. Ahn, H.J. Kim, M.K. Ryu, K.B. Park, J.B. Seon, S.Y. Lee, Investigating addition effect of hafnium in InZnO thin film transistors using a solution process. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 093503 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringKonkuk UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations