Facile preparation of various ZnO nanostructures via ultrasonic mist vapor deposition: a systematic investigation about the effects of growth parameters
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ZnO thin films with various surface morphologies were deposited on glass substrate via a facile and well-controllable method so-called ultrasonic mist vapor deposition (UMVD). The effects of important growth parameters namely substrate temperature (Ts), nozzle-substrate distance (D) and nozzle aperture diameter (d) on optical, electrical and surface properties (both in micro and macro-scale) of synthesized thin films were carefully investigated. In case of d = 10 mm and D = 6 cm, ZnO nanoseeds and nanorods were grown at Ts = 330 and 500 °C, respectively. Interestingly, ZnO nanosheets were grown perpendicular to the substrate when d = 10 mm, D = 9 cm and Ts = 400 °C. More rough surfaces (in macroscopic scale) were grown for small D (6 and 9 cm) and lower substrate temperature (Ts = 330 and 400 °C) while for Ts = 500 °C a smooth and uniform surface can be obtained at any distance. The layer prepared with d = 10 mm, has the lowest roughness (33 nm) which is one order of magnitude lower than other samples. Increment of Ts, d and also D reduced the electrical sheet resistance. The growth mechanisms leading to obtain various morphologies for different samples were also proposed and discussed.
The Authors would like to thank Research and Technology Council of the Hakim Sabzevari University for financial support.
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