Manganese oxide nanoparticles electrodeposited on graphenized pencil lead electrode as a sensitive miniaturized pH sensor

  • Rahim Mohammad-RezaeiEmail author
  • Sahand Soroodian
  • Ghadir Esmaeili


pH monitoring in micro volume samples is required for environmental and clinical analysis. Low cost, miniaturized and stable metal oxide based pH sensors could be a suitable alternative to glass electrodes. In this study, a sensitive potentiometric solid state pH sensor based on manganese oxide nanoparticles electrodeposited on graphenized pencil lead electrode (MnO2/GPLE) was reported. The prepared MnO2/GPLE was carefully characterized by SEM, XRD and electrochemical techniques. To miniaturize the prepared pH sensor, a stainless steel 304 needle was used as a reference electrode. Selectivity, response time, stability and reproducibility of the miniaturized pH sensor were studied and compared with conventional glass pH electrode. According to experimental results, a near-Nernstian slope of − 57.051 mV/pH and linearity over the pH range of 1.5–12.5 were obtained for the developed MnO2/GPLE pH sensor. The prepared sensor represented high ion selectivity to mono-valence and multi-valence ions with \(- \log K_{{{\text{A}},{\text{B}}}}^{{{\text{Pot}}}}\) values around 6.49. A fast response time of 20 s in acidic medium and 60 s in alkaline medium, long-term stability and reproducibility in 2 months, the simplicity of fabrication, low cost and accuracy makes this sensor as a suitable choice for rapid pH recording in micro volume samples. The MnO2/GPLE pH sensor was successfully used for the pH monitoring of human tear, human blood, saliva, apple juice, lemon juice, milk, and vinegar samples with satisfactory results.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the Research Council of Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahim Mohammad-Rezaei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sahand Soroodian
    • 1
  • Ghadir Esmaeili
    • 1
  1. 1.Electrochemistry Research Lab, Faculty of Basic SciencesAzarbaijan Shahid Madani UniversityTabrizIran

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