Growth behavior of IMCs layer of the Sn–35Bi–1Ag on Cu, Ni–P/Cu and Ni–Co–P/Cu substrates during aging

  • Yulong Li
  • Zhiliang Wang
  • Xuewen Li
  • Xiaowu Hu
  • Min LeiEmail author


In this work, the interfacial reactions and IMC growth of the Sn–35Bi–1Ag on Cu, Ni–P/Cu and Ni–Co–P/Cu were studied during reflowing at 220 °C for 10 min and solid–state treatment at 150 °C with various aging times. For the solder joints of Sn–35Bi–1Ag/Cu, Cu6Sn5 IMC was formed at the interfacial layer after soldering, while Cu3Sn appeared after aging treatment. In the case of the electroless Ni–P plating of Cu, the IMC formed at the interface during isothermal aging was mainly Ni3Sn4 and a small amount of P-rich Ni (Ni3P) layer between the Ni3Sn4 IMC and the electroless Ni–P plating layer. In the case of the electroless Ni–Co–P plating of Cu, the IMC formed at the interface during isothermal aging was mainly (Ni, Co)3Sn4 and a small amount of P-rich Ni ((Ni, Co)3P) layer between (Ni, Co)3Sn4 IMC and the electroless Ni–Co–P plating layer. The addition of Co atoms could effectively inhibit the IMC growth rate, which inducing a lower growth rate of (Ni, Co)3Sn4 than that of Ni3Sn4. The thickness of Ni3P and (Ni, Co)3P layer reached about 2.31 µm and 1.25 µm after aging for 360 h, respectively. Also, the growth kinetics of the Ni3P and (Ni, Co)3P layer was found to be a diffusion–controlled process, which followed a parabolic relationship in the thickness increase. During the aging, the consumption of the electroless Ni–Co–P plating layer was greatly reduced compared with that of the electroless Ni–P plating layer. Moreover, there were no voids observed in the electroless Ni–Co–P plating layer while some defects formed in that of the electroless Ni–P plating layer. The electroless Ni–Co–P plating layer will be a good diffusion barrier for the lead-free soldering.



This work was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51665038), Key Project of the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (20171ACB21011), the Academic and Technical Leaders Founding Project of Major Disciplines of Jiangxi Province (2018), the Postgraduate Innovative Special Foundation of Nanchang University (CX2017057).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yulong Li
    • 1
  • Zhiliang Wang
    • 1
  • Xuewen Li
    • 1
  • Xiaowu Hu
    • 1
  • Min Lei
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Lab for Robot & Welding Automation of Jiangxi Province, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering SchoolNanchang UniversityNanchangChina

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