Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics

, Volume 29, Issue 23, pp 19942–19950 | Cite as

Substrate temperature and laser fluence effects on properties of ZnO thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

  • E. Abdel-FattahEmail author
  • I. A. Elsayed
  • T. Fahmy


The influence of substrate temperature and laser fluence on the optical, structure, surface topography/chemical composition of ZnO thin film have been studied by means of UV–Vis optical absorption, X-ray diffraction XRD, atomic force microscope AFM and X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy XPS. The UV–Vis absorption spectra showed an absorption band around 350 nm due to ZnO nanostructure, and red shift in wavelength was observed at higher substrate temperature. XRD pattern revealed the poly-crystalline wurtzite structure of ZnO thin film deposited at 25 °C, that evolves into crystal phase (002) and (103) as substrate temperature increased irrespective of laser fluence, the average particle size is in range of 5–10 nm. The AFM 3D images showed that, the ZnO surface morphology becomes more smoother as the substrate temperature increases from 25 to 450 °C, irrespective of laser fluences. The XPS results reveal that Zn component increases with the substrate temperature, meanwhile the O component decreases leads improved improved stoichiometric properties of ZnO thin film.



The authors wish to thank Mr. Obaid M Alqahtani, Physics Department, College of Science and Humanities, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, for his technical assistance in XRD measurements.


  1. 1.
    U. Ozgur, Y. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M.A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.J. Cho, H. Morkoc, A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices. J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Wu, D. Xue, Progress of science and technology of ZnO as advanced material. Sci. Adv. Mat. 3, 127 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Schade, Z.E. Smith, Optical properties and quantum efficiency of \(a-\rm Si_{1-x} C_{x}:H/a-Si:H\) solar cells. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 568 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. Kondo, T. Yoneyama, K. Kondo, O. Takenaka, A. Kinbara, Interface structure and adhesion of sputtered Ti layers on Si: the effect of heat treatment. Thin Solid Films 1, 236 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Ungula, B.F. Dejene, H.C. Swart, Effect of annealing on the structural, morphological and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO nanoparticles by refluux precipitation method. Results Phys. 7, 2022 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Ohmukai, T. Nakagawa, A. Matsumoto, ZnO films deposited on glass by means of DC sputtering. J. Mater. Sci. Chem. Eng. 4, 1 (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.F. Yang, H.C. Wen, S.R. Jian, S. Lai, S. Wu, R.S. Chen, Characteristics of ZnO thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Microelectron. Reliab. 48, 389 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Amari, A. Mahroug, A. Boukhari, B. Deghfel, N. Selmi, Structural, optical and luminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin-coating method: effect of precursor concentration. Chin. Phys. Lett. 35(1), 016801 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Pokharel, M. Shrestha, L. Qin Zhou, V. Neto, Q.H. Fan, Oriented Zinc oxide nanocrystalline thin films grown from sol–gel solution. J. Coat. Sci. Technol. 2(2), 46 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.D. Pedersen, H.J. Esposito, K.S. Teh, Direct synthesis and characterization of optically transparent conformal zinc oxide nanocrystalline thin films by rapid thermal plasma CVD. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 568 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.B. Franklin, B. Zou, P. Petrov, D.W. McComb, M.P. Ryana, M.A. McLachlan, Optimised pulsed laser deposition of ZnO thin films on transparent conducting substrates. J. Mater. Chem. 21, 8178 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Opel, S. Geprägs, M. Althammer, T. Brenninger, R. Gross, Laser molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO thin films and heterostructures. J. Phys. D 47, 034002 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Bruncko, A. Vincze, M. Netrvalova, Study of ZnO layers growth by pulsed laser deposition from Zn and ZnO targets. Vacuum 84, 162 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    F.K. Shan, B.C. Shin, S.W. Jang, Y.S. Yu, Substrate effects of ZnO thin films prepared by PLD technique. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 24(6), 1015 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Lemlikchia, S. Abdelli-Messaci, S. Lafane, T. Kerdja, A. Guittoum, M. Saad, Study of structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(18), 5650 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B.D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1970)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Virendra, D. Charlnene, Y. Deepti, A.J. Shaikh, V. Nadanathangam, Spectroscopic characterization of zinc oxide nanorods synthesized by solid state reaction. Spectrochim. Acta A 65, 173 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1971)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, N. Katsarakis, T. Kitsopoulos, G. Kiriakidis, Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 515(16), 6562 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.Y. Song, A.G. Aberle, J. Xia, Optimisation of ZnO: Al films by change of sputter gas pressure for solar cell application. Appl. Surf. Sci. 195(1–4), 291 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    H. Kim, C.M. Gilmore, J.S. Horwitz, A. Pique, H. Murata, G.P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z.H. Kafafi, D.B. Chrisey, Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Cebulla, R. Wendt, K. Ellmer, Al-doped zinc oxide films deposited by simultaneous rf and dc excitation of a magnetron plasma: relationships between plasma parameters and structural and electrical film properties. J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1087 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.H. Jeong, J.H. Boo, Influence of target-to-substrate distance on the properties of AZO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 447/448, 105 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y.S. Kim, W.P. Tai, S.J. Shu, Effect of preheating temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films by sol–gel process. Thin Solid Films 491(1–2), 153 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Chen, W. Wang, Y.H. Yu, Z.L. Pei, X.D. Bai, C. Sun, R.F. Huang, L.S. Wen, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy studies of Al doped ZnO films. Appl. Surf. Sci. 158(1–2), 134 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Futsuhara, K. Yoshioka, O. Takai, Structural, electrical and optical properties of zinc nitride thin films prepared by reactive rf magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 322, 274 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Zhou, Z. Li, Synthesis of nanowires, nanorods and nanoparticles of ZnO through modulating the ratio of water to methanol by using a mild and simple solution method. Mater. Chem. Phys. 89, 326 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plasma and Material Science Unit, Physics Department, College of Science and HumanitiesPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAl-KharjSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Physics Department, Faculty of ScienceZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  3. 3.Physics Department, Faculty of ScienceDamietta UniversityNew DamiettaEgypt
  4. 4.Physics Department, Faculty of ScienceMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

Personalised recommendations