Advertisement

Polymer based optical humidity and temperature sensor

  • N. Kaur SidhuEmail author
  • P. Abedini Sohi
  • Mojtaba Kahrizi
Article
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Humidity control and moisture measurements have a wide range of applications like monitoring humidity in food storages, chemical plants, electronic instruments, building constructions, hospitals, museums and libraries. In this work we have developed a fully optical humidity sensor. The device is based on a hygroscopic polymer, polyimide, which undergoes reversible volume expansion on exposure to the humid environment. Multiphysics tool, COMSOL, is used to investigate the mechanism of humidity absorption by the polymer layers. Moisture absorption and diffusion into the polymer layers are modeled and simulated. The sensor is designed using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) developed along an optical fiber. Layers of the polyimide coated the FBG. The induced strain caused by polyimide expansion and deformed geometry of the fiber is modeled. To develop a high sensitive sensor, a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating (π-PSFBG) is selected as a sensing element because of its sharp spectrum signal. To further improve the spectral signal, an optimum apodization function is implemented in design of the device. The spectral signal of sensing element is modeled and simulated using mathematical analysis in MATLAB. The results of theoretical modeling are used to fabricate the sensor containing two 24-mm long π-PSFBGs separated by 12 mm on a SMF 28 fiber. A distributed feedback laser scanner is used to characterize the device precisely. The sensor response to the changes in the humidity and temperature of the environment is studied. The experimental results are relatively in good agreement with those obtained theoretically.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), QPS Photronics Inc, Montreal, Canada and by the Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science at Concordia University.

References

  1. 1.
    E. Al-Fakih, N.A.A. Osman, F.R.M. Adikan, The use of fiber bragg grating sensors in biomechanics and rehabilitation applications: the state-of-the-art and ongoing research topics. Sensors (Switzerland) 12(10), 12890–12926 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Farahani, R. Wagiran, M.N. Hamidon, Humidity sensors principle, mechanism, and fabrication technologies: a comprehensive review. Sensors 14(5), 7881–7939 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Gu, Q.-A. Huang, M. Qin, A novel capacitive-type humidity sensor using CMOS fabrication technology. Sens. Actuators B 99(2–3), 491–498 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Z.M. Rittersma, Recent achievements in miniaturised humidity sensors—a review of transduction techniques. Sens. Actuators A 96, 196–210 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.M. Werneck, R.C.S.B. Allil, B. Ribeiro, F.V.B. De Nazaré, A Guide to Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (Intech, Rijeka, 2013) pp. 1–24Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Aneesh, S.K. Khijwania, Zinc oxide nanoparticle based optical fiber humidity sensor having linear response throughout a large dynamic range. Appl. Opt. 50(27), 5310 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. David, P.M. Wild, N. Djilali, Parametric study of a polymer-coated fibre-optic humidity sensor. Meas. Sci. Technol. 23, 035103 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K.M. Tan, C.M. Tay, S.C. Tjin, C.C. Chan, H. Rahardjo, High relative humidity measurements using gelatin coated long-period grating sensors. Sens. Actuators B 110(2), 335–341 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Wang, Y. Liu, M. Zhang, D. Tu, X. Mao, Y. Liao, A relative humidity sensor using a hydrogel-coated long period grating. Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3131–3134 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Hartings, K.O. Douglass, C. Neice, Z. Ahmed, Humidity responsive photonic sensor based on a carboxymethyl cellulose mechanical actuator. Sens. Actuators B 265, 335–338 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S.F.H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P.P. Lima, H. Varum, L.D. Carlos, R.A.S. Ferreira, P.S. André, Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating. Sensors (Switzerland) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.G. Limberger, P. Kronenberg, Ph. Giaccari, Influence of humidity and temperature on polyimide-coated fiber Bragg gratings, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, p. BFB2, 2001Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    T.L. Yeo, K.T.V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, B.D. Powell, Polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating for relative humidity sensing. IEEE Sens. J. 5(5), 1082–1089 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. Bai, M. Yang, J. Dai, H. Yu, G. Wang, C. Qi, Novel polyimide coated fiber Bragg grating sensing network for relative humidity measurements. Opt. Express 24(4), 3230 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.J. Swanson, S.G. Raymond, S. Janssens, R.D. Breukers, M.D.H. Bhuiyan, J.W. Lovell-Smith, M.R. Waterland, Investigation of polyimide coated fibre Bragg gratings for relative humidity sensing. Meas. Sci. Technol. 26(12), 125101 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    X.F. Huang, D.R. Sheng, K.F. Cen, H. Zhou, Low-cost relative humidity sensor based on thermoplastic polyimide-coated fiber Bragg grating. Sens. Actuators B 127(2), 518–524 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Z. Chen, C. Lu, Humidity sensors: a review of materials and mechanisms. Sens. Lett. 3(4), 274–295 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G.P. Agrawal, S. Radic, Phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings and their application for wavelength demultiplexing. IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(8), 995–997 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Wang, H. Guo, G. Xiao, N. Mrad, A. Kazemi, D. Ban, Phase-shifted fiber-Bragg-grating-based humidity sensor, in Photonic Applications for Aerospace, Commercial, and Harsh Environments IV, vol. 8720, p. 872019, 2013Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Q. Wu, Y. Okabe, K. Saito, F. Yu, Sensitivity distribution properties of a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating sensor to ultrasonic waves. Sensors 14(1), 1094–1105 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N.M. Litchinitser, B.J. Eggleton, G.P. Agrawal, Dispersion of cascaded fiber gratings in WDM lightwave systems. J. Lightwave Technol. 16(8), 1523–1529 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    I. Yulianti, A.S.M. Supa’at, S.M. Idrus, A.M. Al-Hetar, Simulation of apodization profiles performances for unchirped fiber Bragg gratings, in 2010 International Conference on Photonics, ICP2010, 2010Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Chaoui, O. Aghzout, M. Chakkour, M. El Yakhloufi, Apodization optimization of FBG strain sensor for Quasi-distributed sensing measurement applications. Act. Passive Electron. Compon. (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6523046 Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Erdogan, Fiber grating spectra. J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    F.J. Arregui, I.R. Matías, K.L. Cooper, R.O. Claus, Simultaneous measurement of humidity and temperature by combining a reflective intensity-based optical fiber sensor and a fiber bragg grating. IEEE Sens. J. 2(5), 482–487 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Zrelli, M. Bouyahi, T. Ezzedine, Simultaneous monitoring of humidity and strain based on Bragg sensor. Optik (Stuttg). 127(18), 7326–7331 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Z. Zhou, J. Ou, Techniques of temperature compensation for FBG strain sensors used in long-term structural monitoring, in Fundamental Problems of Optoelectronics and Microelectronics II, pp. 167–172, 2005Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. Lee, Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors. Opt. Fiber Technol. 9(2), 57–79 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y. Kuang, Y. Guo, L. Xiong, W. Liu, Packaging and temperature compensation of fiber Bragg grating for strain sensing: a survey. Photonic Sens. (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13320-018-0504-y Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Kaur Sidhu
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Abedini Sohi
    • 1
  • Mojtaba Kahrizi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringConcordia UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations