Effect of particle size distribution on the mechanical and electrical properties of reverse-offset printed Sn–Ag–Cu solder bumps
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A reduction of the particle size used in solder pastes was shown to affect the electrical and mechanical properties of finely printed solder bumps. Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder nanoparticles were synthesized using a radio frequency thermal plasma system, and solder pastes were formulated for reverse-offset printing of solder bump arrays with a size of 30 µm. As the nanoparticle ratio in the paste increased, the degree of supercooling, ΔT, increased with a separation of the exothermic peaks for the solidification of β-Sn and the precipitation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The networks of finely precipitated IMCs formed at the boundaries of large β-Sn increased the shear strength to 73 MPa. However, insufficient flux deteriorated the electrical and mechanical properties because it delayed the solidification of primary β-Sn as well as the melting of the solder. As a result, the Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder paste containing a nanoparticle ratio of 25% exhibited an optimum printability for reverse-offset printing of solder bumps, and the resulting bumps had an electrical conductance of 0.4 mΩ and a shear strength of 73 MPa.
This research was supported by the Technology Innovation Program (10080746) of the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea), and the R&D Convergence Program of the National Research Council for Science and Technology for the Republic of Korea (CAP-15-04-KITECH).
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