Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers with sulfur heteroatoms for improving microwave absorption

  • 23 Accesses

Abstract

It is greatly meaningful but remains very challenging to obtain high-performance microwave absorber with thin thickness, lightweight, wide bandwidth, and strong absorption. Here, sulfur-enriched nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (S-NCFs) with excellent microwave absorption performance have been constructed through electrospinning technology and heat treatment with sublimed sulfur. Experimental results and the theoretical calculation evidenced that nitrogenous carbon nanofibers doping with sulfur could not only generate a large number of electric dipoles but also favor the promotion of conductivity. Benefiting from the unique architecture and heteroatoms doping that contributed to the well-matched impedance and dielectric enhancement, the S-NCFs exhibited the minimum reflection loss (RL) of − 48.67 dB at 16.1 GHz with a matching thickness of 1.39 mm at a filler loading of as low as 15%. In addition, the samples can obtain the broadest effective absorption bandwidth (EAB, RL < − 10 dB) of 4.90 GHz with the thickness of 1.53 mm. This work provides a facile and efficient approach for fabricating carbon materials as lightweight and highly efficient microwave absorbers.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9

References

  1. 1

    Ma M, Yang R, Zhang C, Wang B, Zhao Z, Hu W, Liu Z, Yu D, Wen F, He J, Tian Y (2019) Direct large-scale fabrication of C-encapsulated B4C nanoparticles with tunable dielectric properties as excellent microwave absorbers. Carbon 148:504–511

  2. 2

    Xie P, Zhang Z, Wang Z, Sun K, Fan R (2019) Targeted double negative properties in silver/silica random metamaterials by precise control of microstructures. Research 2019:1021368

  3. 3

    Ren K, Wang Y, Ye C, Du Z, Bian J, Long C, Zhao S, Li W, Guan J (2019) Realizing significant dielectric dispersion of composites based on highly conducting silver-coated glass microspheres for wide-band non-magnetic microwave absorbers. J Mater Chem C 7:528–542

  4. 4

    Li X, Wang L, You W, Xing L, Yu X, Li Y, Che R (2019) Morphology-controlled synthesis and excellent microwave absorption performance of ZnCo2O4 nanostructures via a self-assembly process of flake units. Nanoscale 11:2694–2702

  5. 5

    Xie P, Li H, He B, Dang F, Lin J, Fan R, Hou C, Liu H, Zhang J, Ma Y, Guo Z (2018) Bio-gel derived nickel/carbon nanocomposites with enhanced microwave absorption. J Mater Chem C 6:8812–8822

  6. 6

    Yin Y, Liu X, Wei X, Yu R, Shui J (2016) Porous CNTs/Co composite derived from zeolitic imidazolate framework: a lightweight, ultrathin, and highly efficient electromagnetic wave absorber. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:34686–34698

  7. 7

    Liu Y, Chen Z, Xie W, Song S, Zhang Y, Dong L (2019) In-situ growth and graphitization synthesis of porous Fe3O4/carbon fiber composites derived from biomass as lightweight microwave absorber. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 7:5318–5328

  8. 8

    Liu J, Che R, Chen H, Zhang F, Xia F, Wu Q, Wang M (2012) Microwave absorption enhancement of multifunctional composite microspheres with spinel Fe3O4 cores and anatase TiO2 shells. Small 8:1214–1221

  9. 9

    Jiang Y, Fu X, Zhang Z, Du W, Xie P, Cheng C, Fan R (2019) Enhanced microwave absorption properties of Fe3C/C nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. J Alloys Compd 804:305–313

  10. 10

    Xu H, Yin X, Fan X, Tang Z, Hou Z, Li M, Li X, Zhang L, Cheng L (2019) Constructing a tunable heterogeneous interface in bimetallic metal-organic frameworks derived porous carbon for excellent microwave absorption performance. Carbon 148:421–429

  11. 11

    Wei H, Yin X, Li X, Li M, Dang X, Zhang L, Cheng L (2019) Controllable synthesis of defective carbon nanotubes/Sc2Si2O7 ceramic with adjustable dielectric properties for broadband high-performance microwave absorption. Carbon 147:276–283

  12. 12

    Cheng C, Fan R, Fan G, Liu H, Zhang J, Shen J, Ma Q, Wei R, Guo Z (2019) Tunable negative permittivity and magnetic performance of yttrium iron garnet/polypyrrole metacomposites at the RF frequency. J Mater Chem C 7:3160–3167

  13. 13

    Lu Y, Wang Y, Li H, Lin Y, Jiang Z, Xie Z, Kuang Q, Zheng L (2015) MOF-derived porous Co/C nanocomposites with excellent electromagnetic wave absorption properties. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:13604–13611

  14. 14

    Li X, Yin X, Xu H, Han M, Li M, Liang S, Cheng L, Zhang L (2018) Ultralight MXene-coated, interconnected SiCnws three-dimensional lamellar foams for efficient microwave absorption in the X-band. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10:34524–34533

  15. 15

    Quan B, Shi W, Ong SJH, Lu X, Wang PL, Ji G, Guo Y, Zheng L, Xu ZJ (2019) Defect engineering in two common types of dielectric materials for electromagnetic absorption applications. Adv Funct Mater 29:1901236

  16. 16

    Qu Y, Du Y, Fan G, Xin J, Liu Y, Xie P, You S, Zhang Z, Sun K, Fan R (2019) Low-temperature sintering Graphene/CaCu3Ti4O12 nanocomposites with tunable negative permittivity. J Alloys Compd 771:699–710

  17. 17

    Wang F, Wang N, Han X, Liu D, Wang Y, Cui L, Xu P, Du Y (2019) Core-shell FeCo@carbon nanoparticles encapsulated in polydopamine-derived carbon nanocages for efficient microwave absorption. Carbon 145:701–711

  18. 18

    Cheng Y, Li Z, Li Y, Dai S, Ji G, Zhao H, Cao J, Du Y (2018) Rationally regulating complex dielectric parameters of mesoporous carbon hollow spheres to carry out efficient microwave absorption. Carbon 127:643–652

  19. 19

    Krivanek OL, Chisholm MF, Nicolosi V, Pennycook TJ, Corbin GJ, Dellby N, Murfitt MF, Own CS, Szilagyi ZS, Oxley MP (2010) Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy. Nature 464:571

  20. 20

    Zhang X, Guo J, Guan P, Qin G, Pennycook SJ (2015) Gigahertz dielectric polarization of substitutional single niobium atoms in defective graphitic layers. Phys Rev Lett 115:147601

  21. 21

    Li X, Hu X, Zhou L, Wen R, Xu X, Chou S, Chen L, Cao A-M, Dou S (2019) A S/N-doped high-capacity mesoporous carbon anode for Na-ion batteries. J Mater Chem A 7:11976–11984

  22. 22

    Hou C, Wang J, Du W, Wang J, Du Y, Liu C, Zhang J, Hou H, Dang F, Zhao L, Guo Z (2019) One-pot synthesized molybdenum dioxide–molybdenum carbide heterostructures coupled with 3D holey carbon nanosheets for highly efficient and ultrastable cycling lithium-ion storage. J Mater Chem A 7:13460–13472

  23. 23

    Sun X, Wang C, Gong Y, Gu L, Chen Q, Yu Y (2018) A flexible sulfur-enriched nitrogen doped multichannel hollow carbon nanofibers film for high performance sodium storage. Small 14:e1802218

  24. 24

    Liu J, Ji Y-G, Qiao B, Zhao F, Gao H, Chen P, An Z, Chen X, Chen Y (2018) N,S Co-doped carbon nanofibers derived from bacterial cellulose/poly(methylene blue) hybrids: efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. Catalysts 8:269

  25. 25

    Li Y, Liu R, Pang X, Zhao X, Zhang Y, Qin G, Zhang X (2018) Fe@C nanocapsules with substitutional sulfur heteroatoms in graphitic shells for improving microwave absorption at gigahertz frequencies. Carbon 126:372–381

  26. 26

    Yuan X, Xue X, Ma H, Guo S, Cheng L (2017) Preparation of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped ordered mesoporous carbon for enhanced microwave absorption performance. Nanotechnology 28:375705

  27. 27

    Liu Q, Cao Q, Bi H, Liang C, Yuan K, She W, Yang Y, Che R (2016) CoNi@SiO2 @TiO2 and CoNi@Air@TiO2 microspheres with strong wideband microwave absorption. Adv Mater 28:486–490

  28. 28

    Zhang X, Ji G, Liu W, Quan B, Liang X, Shang C, Cheng Y, Du Y (2015) Thermal conversion of an Fe(3)O(4)@metal-organic framework: a new method for an efficient Fe-Co/nanoporous carbon microwave absorbing material. Nanoscale 7:12932–12942

  29. 29

    Guo L, An Q, Xiao Z, Zhai S-R, Cui L (2019) Inherent N-doped honeycomb-like carbon/Fe3O4 composites with versatility for efficient microwave absorption and wastewater treatment. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 7:9237–9248

  30. 30

    Kresse G, Joubert D (1999) From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented-wave method. Phys Rev B 59:1758–1775

  31. 31

    Perdew JP, Burke K, Ernzerhof M (1996) Generalized gradient approximation made simple. Phys Rev Lett 77:3865–3868

  32. 32

    Blöchl PE (1994) Projector augmented-wave method. Phys Rev B 50:17953–17979

  33. 33

    Wu Z, Tian K, Huang T, Hu W, Xie F, Wang J, Su M, Li L (2018) Hierarchically porous carbons derived from biomasses with excellent microwave absorption performance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10:11108–11115

  34. 34

    Yang Y, Xu C, Xia Y, Wang T, Li F (2010) Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of FeCo nanoplates. J Alloys Compd 493:549–552

  35. 35

    Xiang J, Li J, Zhang X, Ye Q, Xu J, Shen X (2014) Magnetic carbon nanofibers containing uniformly dispersed Fe/Co/Ni nanoparticles as stable and high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbers. J Mater Chem A 2:16905–16914

  36. 36

    Liu Q, Liu X, Feng H, Shui H, Yu R (2017) Metal organic framework-derived Fe/carbon porous composite with low Fe content for lightweight and highly efficient electromagnetic wave absorber. Chem Eng J 314:320–327

  37. 37

    Hou Y, Huang T, Wen Z, Mao S, Cui S, Chen J (2014) Metal − organic framework-derived nitrogen-doped core-shell-structured porous Fe/Fe3C@ C nanoboxes supported on graphene sheets for efficient oxygen reduction reactions. Adv Energy Mater 4:1400337

  38. 38

    Ding D, Wang Y, Li X, Qiang R, Xu P, Chu W, Han X, Du Y (2017) Rational design of core-shell Co@C microspheres for high-performance microwave absorption. Carbon 111:722–732

  39. 39

    Ma J, Zhang X, Liu W, Ji G (2016) Direct synthesis of MOF-derived nanoporous CuO/carbon composites for high impedance matching and advanced microwave absorption. J Mater Chem C 4:11419–11426

  40. 40

    Huang L, Li J, Wang Z, Li Y, He X, Yuan Y (2019) Microwave absorption enhancement of porous C@CoFe2O4 nanocomposites derived from eggshell membrane. Carbon 143:507–516

  41. 41

    Qiao Y, Ma M, Liu Y, Li S, Lu Z, Yue H, Dong H, Cao Z, Yin Y, Yang S (2016) First-principles and experimental study of nitrogen/sulfur co-doped carbon nanosheets as anodes for rechargeable sodium ion batteries. J Mater Chem A 4:15565–15574

  42. 42

    Wu Z, Pei K, Xing L, Yu X, You W, Che R (2019) Enhanced microwave absorption performance from magnetic coupling of magnetic nanoparticles suspended within hierarchically tubular composite. Adv Funct Mater 29:1901448

  43. 43

    Fang J, Shang Y, Chen Z, Wei W, Hu Y, Yue X, Jiang Z (2017) Rice husk-based hierarchically porous carbon and magnetic particles composites for highly efficient electromagnetic wave attenuation. J Mater Chem C 5:4695–4705

  44. 44

    Fang J, Liu T, Chen Z, Wang Y, Wei W, Yue X, Jiang Z (2016) A wormhole-like porous carbon/magnetic particles composite as an efficient broadband electromagnetic wave absorber. Nanoscale 8:8899–8909

  45. 45

    Li S, Huang Y, Ding L, Zong M, Zhang N, Qin X, Liu P (2019) Synthesis and enhancement of microwave absorption property by coating silicon dioxide and polyaniline for Fe-Co alloy. J Magn Magn Mater 486:165259

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51601105), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2017M622199, 2018T110687), Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by CAST (Grant No. 2017QNRC001), and Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (Grant No. 2019-01-07-00-10-E00053).

Author information

Correspondence to Zidong Zhang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 713 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jiang, Y., Fu, X., Tian, R. et al. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers with sulfur heteroatoms for improving microwave absorption. J Mater Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-020-04430-y

Download citation