Asian ladybird folding and unfolding of hind wing: biomechanical properties of resilin in affecting the tensile strength of the folding area
- 110 Downloads
The deployable hind wings of Coleoptera are a highly specialized motive system that can fold and unfold in a unique way. Resilin in the wing membrane of Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis) hind wings plays an active role during folding and unfolding of the wing. This study investigates the tensile properties of the hind wing and the distribution of resilin through the hind wing in an adult H. axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and how the resilin in the membrane of the hind wing affects its mechanical characteristics. The cross sections of veins of the hind wing are investigated by inverted fluorescence microscopy. Based on those results, two three-dimensional finite element models of the hind wing with/without resilin are established. The displacements, when subjected to pressure on the ventral side, are analyzed when the membrane wings are filled with/without resilin. The resilin in the hind wing is effectively for changing the flight performance such as the condition of stress and deformation. The results in this paper reveal the multiple functions of the resilin in the hind wings and have important implications for the design of biomimetic deployable micro-air vehicles.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number 31672348), Joint Fund for Pre-research of Equipment and Weapons Industry (Grant Number 6141B012833), China-EU H2020 FabSurfWAR Project (Grant Number 644971), and 111 Project (B16020) of China.
ZLS and JYS designed the study; ZLS and YWY coordinated the study; ZLS, JT, and JYS conducted the research and analyzed the data; ZLS wrote the manuscript; JYS reviewed the manuscript, discussed the results, and gave the final approval for publication; Mr. Zhiqiang Zhang, ShenYang YuanJie Optics Technology Co., Ltd., offered technology supporting.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare there are no conflicts of interest to disclose.
This work complies with ethical guidelines at Jilin University.
- 5.Yan X, Qi M, Lin L (2015) Self-lifting artificial insect wings via electrostatic flapping actuators. In: 2015 28th IEEE international conference on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). IEEE, pp 22–25. https://doi.org/10.1109/memsys.2015.7050876
- 19.Saito K, Tachi T, Niiyama R, Kawahara Y (2017) Design of a beetle inspired deployable wing. In: 41st mechanisms and robotics conference. ASME, vol 5B(4), pp 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1115/detc2017-67697
- 25.Haas F (2006) Evidence from folding and functional lines of wings on inter-ordinal relationships in Pterygota. Arthropod Syst Phylogeny 64:149–158Google Scholar
- 35.Manuscript A (2012) Recombinant exon-encoded resilins for elastomeric biomaterials. Biomaterials 32:9231–9243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.06.010.Recombinant CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Sun J, Song Z, Pan C, Liu Z (2018) Analysis of light-mass and high-strength veins of hind wing from Asian Ladybird beetle. In: 2018 IEEE international conference on manipulation, manufacturing and measurement on the nanoscale (3M-NANO). IEEE, pp 142–145. https://doi.org/10.1109/3m-nano.2018.8552182
- 44.Betts CR (2009) The comparative morphology of the wings and axillae of selected Heteroptera. J Zool 1:255–282. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1986.tb00639.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Haas F (2000) Wing folding in insects: a natural, deployable structure. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-9514-8_15
- 53.Herbert RC, Young PG, Smith CW et al (2000) The hind wing of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskål) II. Mechanical properties and functioning of the membrane C. J Exp Biol 203:2945–2955Google Scholar