Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 55, Issue 2, pp 670–679 | Cite as

Preparation of needle-like TiO2/Graphene for electrical conductive analysis

  • Ying Li
  • Tao EEmail author
  • Lin Liu
  • Shuyi Yang
  • Jianhua Qian
  • Zengying Ma
Electronic materials


The needle-like TiO2 obtained by hydrothermal treatment combines with Graphene by adding cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as auxiliary dispersant. On this basis, the needle-like TiO2/Graphene composite conductive material was prepared which is increasing the compatibility of conductive Graphene. The growth mechanism of the needle-like TiO2/Graphene was discussed and supported by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and other test methods. Experimental results show that hydrothermal temperature has a great influence on the formation of needle-like TiO2. The quick electron transportation properties between TiO2 and Graphene make the TiO2/Graphene have excellent conductive ability. Needle-like TiO2 can facilitate electron transport on the layer of Graphene. The three-dimensional mesh structure formed by crisscross of needle-like TiO2 is attached to the Graphene surface by the auxiliary effect of CTAB, is forming a conductive network to increase the transmission rate of electrons, so that the TiO2/Graphene is endowed with good electrical conductivity. Finally, the resistivity of TiO2/Graphene is as low as 1.655 × 10−3 Ω m at 7 wt% Graphene, which conforms to the electrical conductive standard of the materials prepared by the factory.



This work was supported by the Basic Research Project of Liaoning Province (LF2017007), the Scientific Public Welfare Research Foundation of Liaoning Province (20170054) and the National Natural Science Foundation (21878024).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10853_2019_4044_MOESM1_ESM.docx (888 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 888 kb)


  1. 1.
    Mahmoodi NM, Arami M (2009) Degradation and toxicity reduction of textile wastewater using immobilized titania nanophotocatalysis. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 94:20–24Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gu WL, Lu F, Wang C, Kuga S, Wu L, Huang Y, Wu M (2017) Face-to-face interfacial assembly of ultrathin g-C3N4 and anatase TiO2 nanosheets for enhanced solar photocatalytic activity. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:28674–28684Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bao L, Wang H, Zhou C, Cui L, Xin B (2017) Synthesis of TiO2–CTAB–SiC composite possessing the microwave absorption capacity and its photocatalytic performance in the microwave field. Res Chem Intermed 43:4719–4730Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lu WC, Tseng LC, Chang KS (2017) Fabrication of TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanorod composition spreads using combinatorial hydrothermal synthesis and their photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical applications. ACS Comb Sci 19:585–593Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pan L, Shen Y, Li Z (2015) Hydrothermal synthesis of WO3 films on the TiO2 substrates and their photochromic properties. Mater Sci Semicond Process 40:479–483Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang ZL, Li JF, Wang XL, Qin JQ, Shi WJ, Liu YF, Gao HP, Mao YL (2017) Enhancement of perovskite solar cells efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 nanorod arrays as electron transfer layer. Nanoscale Res Lett 12:43–49Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang Y, Liao S, Shi W, Wu Y, Zhang R, Leng S (2017) Nitrogen-doped TiO2(B) nanorods as high-performance anode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries. RSC Adv 7:10885–10890Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen Q, Liu H, Xin Y, Cheng X (2013) TiO2 nanobelts-effect of calcination temperature on optical, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties. Electrochim Acta 111:284–291Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sohn H, Kim S, Shin W, Lee JM, Lee H, Yun DJ, Moon KS, Han IT, Kwak C, Hwang SJ (2018) Novel flexible transparent conductive films with enhanced chemical and electro-mechanical sustainability: TiO2 nanosheet-Ag nanowire hybrid. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10:2688–2700Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zheng P, Liu T, Su Y, Zhang L, Guo S (2016) TiO2 nanotubes wrapped with reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Sci Rep 6:36580–36587Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yu X, Lin D, Li P, Su Z (2017) Recent advances in the synthesis and energy applications of TiO2-graphene nanohybrids. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 172:252–269Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kamat PV (2011) Graphene-based nanoassemblies for energy conversion. J Phys Chem Lett 2:242–251Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Neiva EG, Oliveira MM, Bergamini MF, Marcolino LH Jr., Zarbin AJ (2016) One material, multiple functions: graphene/Ni(OH)2 thin films applied in batteries, electrochromism and sensors. Sci Rep 6:33806–33819Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang L, Wang X, Xiao X, Xu F, Sun Y, Li Z (2013) Reduced graphene oxide/nickel cobaltite nanoflake composites for high specific capacitance supercapacitors. Electrochim Acta 111:937–945Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cai C, Jia F, Li A, Huang F, Xu Z, Qiu L, Chen Y, Fei G, Wang M (2016) Crackless transfer of large-area graphene films for superior-performance transparent electrodes. Carbon 98:457–462Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim S, Kwon KC, Park JY, Cho HW, Lee I, Kim SY, Lee JL (2016) A challenge beyond graphene: metal oxide/graphene/metal oxide electrodes for opto-electronic devices. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:12932–12939Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gao H, Li X, Lv J, Liu G (2013) Interfacial charge transfer and enhanced photocatalytic mechanisms for the hybrid graphene/anatase TiO2(001) nanocomposites. J Phys Chem C 117:16022–16027Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Asgharinezhad M, Eshaghi A, Arab A (2016) Fabrication and characterization of optical and electrical properties of vanadium doped titanium dioxide nanostructured thin film. Optik 127:8130–8134Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khan MI, Imran S, Shahnawaz Saleem M, Ur Rehman S (2018) Annealing effect on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO bilayer thin films. Results Phys 8:249–252Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Khodaei M, Yaghobizadeh O, Ehsani N, Baharvandi HR (2018) The effect of TiO2 additive on the electrical resistivity and mechanical properties of pressureless sintered SiC ceramics with Al2O3–Y2O3. Int J Refract Met H Mater 76:141–148Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Park ES (2010) Resistivity and thermal reproducibility of the carbon black and SnO2/Sb coated titanium dioxide filled silicone rubber heaters. Macromol Mater Eng 290:1213–1219Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guo H, Lu XY, Pei Y, Hong C, Wang B, Wang K, Yang Y, Liu Y (2014) Synthesis and characterization of hierarchical TiO2 microspheres composed of nanorods: effect of reaction conditions on nanorod density. RSC Adv 4:37431–37436Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Galaviz-Pérez JA, Chen F, García JRV, Shen Q, Zhang L (2013) Preparation and properties of ATO films and their effects on the TiO2/ATO system. JPCS 419:12–16Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Castro MR, Oliveira PW, Schmidt HK (2009) Optical, structural and electrical investigations of TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 9:4016–4021Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen DM, Xu G, Miao L, Chen LH, Jin P (2010) W-doped anatase TiO2 transparent conductive oxide films: theory and experiment. J Appl Phys 107:15–19Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liang D, Cui C, Hu H, Wang Y, Xu S, Ying B, Li P, Lu B, Shen H (2014) One-step hydrothermal synthesis of anatase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity. J Alloy Compd 582:236–240Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    David S, Mahadik MA, Chung HS, Ryu JH, Jang JS (2017) Facile hydrothermally synthesized a novel CdS nanoflower/rutile-TiO2 nanorod heterojunction photoanode used for photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen generation. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5:7537–7548Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Huang X, Qi XY, Boey F (2012) Graphene-based composites. Chem Soc Rev 41:666–686Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dai K, Lu L, Liu Q, Zhu G, Liu Q, Liu Z (2013) Graphene oxide capturing surface-fluorinated TiO2 nanosheets for advanced photocatalysis and the reveal of synergism reinforce mechanism. Dalton Trans 43:2202–2210Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu C, Zhang L, Liu R, Gao Z, Yang X, Tu Z, Yang F, Ye Z, Cui L, Xu C (2016) Hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped TiO2 nanowires and N-doped graphene heterostructures with enhanced photocatalytic properties. J Alloy Compd 656:24–32Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Xiong Z, Luo Y, Zhao Y, Zhang J, Zheng C, Wu JC (2016) Synthesis, characterization and enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction activity of graphene supported TiO2 nanocrystals with coexposed 001 and 101 facets. Phys Chem Chem Phys 18:13186–13195Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sun M, Kong Y, Fang Y, Sood S, Yao Y, Shi J, Umar A (2017) Hydrothermal formation of N/Ti3+ codoped multiphasic (brookite-anatase-rutile) TiO2 heterojunctions with enhanced visible light driven photocatalytic performance. Dalton Trans 46:15727–15735Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tang Y, Wu D, Chen S, Zhang F, Jia J, Feng X (2013) Highly reversible and ultra-fast lithium storage in mesoporous graphene-based TiO2/SnO2 hybrid nanosheets. Energy Environ Sci 6:2447–2451Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang WS, Wang DH, Qu WG, Lu LQ, Xu AW (2012) Large ultrathin anatase TiO2 nanosheets with exposed 001 facets on graphene for enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. J Phys Chem C 116:19893–19901Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Esfandiar A, Ghasemi S, Irajizad A, Akhavan O, Gholami MR (2012) The decoration of TiO2/reduced graphene oxide by Pd and Pt nanoparticles for hydrogen gas sensing. Int J Hydrog Energy 37:15423–15432Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lü X, Huang F, Wu J, Ding S, Xu F (2011) Intelligent hydrated-sulfate template assisted preparation of nanoporous TiO2 spheres and their visible-light application. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:566–572Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sun M, Ying W, Fang Y, Sun S, Yu Z (2016) Construction of MoS2/CdS/TiO2 ternary composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability. J Alloy Compd 684:335–341Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang Y, Du F, Yan X, Jin Y, Zhu K, Wang X, Li H, Chen G, Wang C, Wei Y (2014) Improvements in the electrochemical kinetic properties and rate capability of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles by nitrogen doping. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:4458–4465Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chen CJ, Wen YW, Hu XL, Ji X, Yan M, Mai L, Hu P, Shan B, Huang Y (2015) Na+ intercalation pseudocapacitance in graphene-coupled titanium oxide enabling ultra-fast sodium storage and long-term cycling. Nat Commun 6:6929–6936Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kudin KN, Ozbas B, Schniepp HC, Prud’Homme RK, Aksay IA, Car R (2008) Raman spectra of graphite oxide and functionalized graphene sheets. Nano Lett 8:36–41Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Agrawal Y, Kedawat G, Kumar P, Dwivedi J, Singh VN, Gupta RK, Gupta BK (2015) High-performance stable field emission with ultralow turn on voltage from rGO conformal coated TiO2 nanotubes 3D arrays. Sci Rep 5:11612–11622Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yang Y, Liao S, Shi W, Wu Y, Zhang R, Leng S (2017) Nitrogen-doped TiO2(B) nanorods as high-performance anode materials for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries. RSC Adv 7:10885–10890Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chen Q, Liu H, Xin Y, Cheng X (2013) TiO2 nanobelts-effect of calcination temperature on optical, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties. Electrochim Acta 111:284–291Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Liaoning Province Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Application of Functional Compounds, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringBohai UniversityJinzhouChina

Personalised recommendations