Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 1765–1778 | Cite as

Impact of the initial microstructure and the loading conditions on the deformation behavior of the Ti17 titanium alloy

  • Houssem Ben BoubakerEmail author
  • Charles Mareau
  • Yessine Ayed
  • Guenael Germain
  • Albert Tidu
Metals & corrosion


In this work, the impact of the microstructure and the loading conditions on the mechanical behavior of a β-rich Ti17 titanium alloy is investigated. For this purpose, two different initial microstructures are considered : (i) a two-phase lamellar α + β microstructure and (ii) a single-phase equiaxed β-treated microstructure. First, compression tests are performed at different strain rates (from \(10^{-1}\) to 10 s−1) and different temperatures (from 25 to \(900\,^\circ \)C) for both microstructures. Then, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, EBSD and X-ray diffraction analyses of deformed specimens are carried out. Whatever the loading conditions are, the flow stress of the as-received α + β Ti17 is higher than that of the β-treated Ti17. Also, because of a higher strain-rate sensitivity, the β-treated Ti17 is less prone to shear banding. At low temperatures (i.e., \(T \le 450\,^\circ \)C), the deformation behavior of both the as-received α + β and the β-treated Ti17 is controlled by strain hardening. For the β-treated Ti17 alloy, martensitic transformation is systematically detected in this temperature range. The softening behavior of the as-received α + β Ti17 observed at high temperatures is due to the joint effect of dynamic recrystallization, dynamic transformation, adiabatic heating and morphological texture evolution. For the β-treated Ti17 alloy, when the temperature exceeds \(700\,^\circ \)C, stress–strain curves display a yield drop phenomenon, which is explained by dynamic recrystallization.



This research was supported by two French organizations from “Angers Loire Métropole”: “Angers Loire Development” and “Angers Technopole.” The authors would like to acknowledge their financial support.


  1. 1.
    Arrazola P-J, Garay A, Iriarte L-M, Armendia M, Marya S, Le Maître F (2009) Machinability of titanium alloys (Ti6Al4V and Ti555.3). J Mater Process Technol 209(5):2223–2230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boyer RR, Briggs RD (2005) The use of β titanium alloys in the aerospace industry. J Mater Eng Perform 14(6):681–685. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weiss I, Semiatin SL (1998) Thermomechanical processing of beta titanium alloys-an overview. Mater Sci Eng A 243(1):46–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Semiatin SL, Bieler TR (2001) The effect of alpha platelet thickness on plastic flow during hot working of Ti–6Al–4V with a transformed microstructure. Acta Mater 49(17):3565–3573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kolli RP, Arun D (2018) A review of metastable beta titanium alloys. Metals 8(7):2075–4701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Semiatin SL, Seetharaman V, Ghosh AK (1999) Plastic flow, microstructure evolution, and defect formation during primary hot working of titanium and titanium aluminide alloys with lamellar colony microstructures. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Eng Sci 357(1756):1487–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dawson AL, Blackwell P, Jones M, Young JM, Duggan MA (1998) Hot rolling and superplastic forming response of net shape processed Ti–6Al–4V produced by centrifugal spray deposition. Mater Sci Technol 14(7):640–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu J, Zeng W, Lai Y, Jia Z (2014) Constitutive model of Ti17 titanium alloy with lamellar-type initial microstructure during hot deformation based on orthogonal analysis. Mater Sci Eng A 597:387–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baoqi G, Semiatin SL, Jonas John J (2019) Dynamic transformation during the high temperature deformation of two-phase titanium alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 761:138047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Momeni A, Abbasi SM (2010) Effect of hot working on flow behavior of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in single phase and two phase regions. Mater Des 31(8):3599–3604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Delfosse J, Rey C, Spath N (2003) Polycrystalline modelling of forging in β phase field of Ti 17. In: 10th World conference on titanium; Ti-2003 science and technology, pp 1315–1322Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Semblanet M, Pallot L, Piot D, Montheillet F, Derrien M, Millet Y, Poletti C, Desrayaud C (2016) Continuous dynamic recrystallization modeling in Ti-17 alloy: application to the forging operations in β and β + α fields. In: Proceedings of the 13th world conference on titanium, pp 689–694Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aeby-Gautier E, Settefrati A, Bruneseaux F, Appolaire B, Denand B, Dehmas M, Geandier G, Boulet P (2013) Isothermal alpha formation in beta metastable titanium alloys. J Alloys Compd 577:S439–S443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mu Z, Li H, Li MQ (2013) The microstructure evolution in the isothermal compression of Ti-17 alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 582:108–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Taku S, Andrey B, Rustam K, Hiromi M, Jonas John J (2014) Dynamic and post-dynamic recrystallization under hot, cold and severe plastic deformation conditions. Prog Mater Sci 60:130–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ayed Y, Germain G, Ammar A, Furet B (2017) Thermo-mechanical characterization of the Ti17 titanium alloy under extreme loading conditions. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(5):1593–1603. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ning Y, Fu MW, Hou H, Yao Z, Guo H (2011) Hot deformation behavior of Ti–5.0Al–2.40Sn–2.02Zr–3.86Mo–3.91Cr alloy with an initial lamellar microstructure in the α + β phase field. Mater Sci Eng A 528(3):1812–1818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li H, Li MQ, Han T, Liu HB (2012) The deformation behavior of isothermally compressed Ti-17 titanium alloy in α + β field. Mater Sci Eng A 546:40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhao Z, Guo H, Wang X, Yao Z (2009) Deformation behavior of isothermally forged Ti–5Al–2Sn-2Zr–4Mo–4Cr powder compact. J Mater Process Technol 209(15–16):5509–5513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ma X, Zeng W, Sun Y, Wang K, Lai Y, Zhou Y (2012) Modeling constitutive relationship of Ti17 titanium alloy with lamellar starting microstructure. Mater Sci Eng A 538:182–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Huang B, Miao X, Luo X, Yang Y, Zhang Y (2019) Microstructure and texture evolution near the adiabatic shear band (ASB) in TC17 titanium alloy with starting equiaxed microstructure studied by EBSD. Mater Charact 151:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang S, Zeng W, Zhao Q, Ge L, Zhang M (2017) In situ sem study of tensile deformation of a near-β titanium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 708:574–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Arab A, Chen P, Guo Y (2019) Effects of microstructure on the dynamic properties of Ta15 titanium alloy. Mech Mater 137:103121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jiang XQ, Fan XG, Li Q, Zhan M (2019) Strengthened flow instability in hot deformation of titanium alloy with colony structure: on the effect of microstructure heterogeneity. J Alloys Compd 801:381–393. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhao ZL, Li H, Fu MW, Guo HZ, Yao ZK (2014) Effect of the initial microstructure on the deformation behavior of Ti60 titanium alloy at high temperature processing. J Alloys Compd 617:525–533. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang K, Zeng W, Zhao Y, Lai Y, Zhou Y (2010) Hot working of Ti17 titanium alloy with lamellar starting structure using 3D processing maps. J Mater Sci 45(21):5883–5891. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hull D, Bacon DJ (2011) Introduction to dislocations, 5th edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhu Y, Zeng W, Zhao Y, Shu Y, Zhang X (2012) Effect of processing parameters on hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution during hot compression of Ti40 titanium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 552:384–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang X, Hamasaki H, Yamamura M, Yamauchi R, Maeda T, Shirai Y, Yoshida F (2009) Yield-point phenomena of Ti–20V–4Al–1Sn at 1073 K and its constitutive modelling. Mater Trans 50(6):1576–1578. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wu F, Xu W, Jin X, Zhong X, Wan X, Shan D, Guo B (2017) Study on hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of Ti55 high-temperature titanium alloy. Metals 7(8):319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ma X, Weidong Z, Kaixuan W, Yunjin L, Yigang Z (2012) The investigation on the unstable flow behavior of Ti17 alloy in \(\alpha + \beta \) phase field using processing map. Mater Sci Eng A 550:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cheng GM, Jian WW, Xu WZ, Yuan H, Millett PC, Zhu YT (2013) Grain size effect on deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline BCC metals. Mater Res Lett 1(1):26–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sakai T, Jonas JJ (1984) Overview no. 35 dynamic recrystallization: mechanical and microstructural considerations. Acta Metall 32(2):189–209. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Li C, Zhang XY, Li ZY, Zhou KC (2013) Hot deformation of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–1Cr–1Fe near beta titanium alloys containing thin and thick lamellar alpha phase. Mater Sci Eng A 573:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Semiatin SL, Jiangtao L, Binhan S, Jonas John J (2018) Opposing and driving forces associated with the dynamic transformation of Ti–6Al–4V. Metall Mater Trans A 49(5):1450–1454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Clifton RJ, Duffy J, Hartley KA, Shawki TG (1984) On critical conditions for shear band formation at high strain rates. Scr Metall 18(5):443–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Huang J, Geng L, Li AB, Cui XP, Li HZ, Wang GS (2009) Characteristics of hot compression behavior of Ti–6.5Al–3.5Mo–1.5Zr–0.3Si alloy with an equiaxed microstructure. Mater Sci Eng A 505:136–143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sandstrom R, Lagneborg R (1975) A model for hot working occurring by recrystallization. Acta Metall 23(3):387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rezaee M, Zarei-Hanzaki A, Mohamadizadeh A, Ghasemi E (2016) High-temperature flow characterization and microstructural evolution of Ti6242 alloy: yield drop phenomenon. Mater Sci Eng A 673:346–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Grosdidier T, Roubaud C, Philippe MJ, Combres Y (1997) The deformation mechanisms in the β-metastable β-Cez titanium alloy. Scr Mater 36(1):21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nwobu A (1982) Strain induced transformations and plasticity in transage Ti–11.6V–2Al–2Sn–6Zr (Tl134) and Ti–11.5V–2Al–2Sn–11.3Zr (Tl29) alloys. J Phys Colloq 43:C4-315–C4-320. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ma X, Li F, Cao J, Li J, Sun Z, Zhu G, Zhou S (2018) Strain rate effects on tensile deformation behaviors of Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al alloy undergoing stress-induced martensitic transformation. Mater Sci Eng A 710:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Paradkar A, Kamat SV (2010) The effect of strain rate on trigger stress for stress-induced martensitic transformation and yield strength in Ti–18Al–8Nb alloy. J Alloys Compd 496(1):178–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hamada AS, Karjalainen LP, Misra RDK, Talonen J (2013) Contribution of deformation mechanisms to strength and ductility in two Cr–Mn grade austenitic stainless steels. Mater Sci Eng A 559:336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wei C, Shanshan Y, Ruolei L, Qiaoyan S, Lin X, Jun S (2015) Enhanced grain refining efficiency assisted by martensitic transformation in metastable beta-titanium alloy. Rare Met Mater Eng 44(7):1601–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Grosdidier T, Philippe MJ (2000) Deformation induced martensite and superelasticity in a β-metastable titanium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 291(1):218–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hartley KA, Duffy J, Hawley RH (1987) Measurement of the temperature profile during shear band formation in steels deforming at high strain rates. J Mech Phys Solids 35(3):283–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Beausir B, Fundenberger JJ (2018) Atex software, analysis tools for electron and X-ray diffraction. University of Lorraine, Metz. Accessed 12 June 2019
  49. 49.
    Zhan H, Zeng W, Wang G, Kent D, Dargusch M (2015) Microstructural characteristics of adiabatic shear localization in a metastable beta titanium alloy deformed at high strain rate and elevated temperatures. Mater Charact 102:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Duan CZ, Cai YJ, Wang MJ, Li GH (2009) Microstructural study of adiabatic shear bands formed in serrated chips during high-speed machining of hardened steel. J Mater Sci 44(3):897–902. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wang BF (2008) Adiabatic shear band in a Ti–3Al–5Mo–4.5V titanium alloy. J Mater Sci 43(5):1576–1582. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Arts et Métiers ParisTechAngers Cedex 1France
  2. 2.Laboratoire d’Étude des Microstructures et de Mécaniques des Matériaux (LEM3)CNRS Université de LorraineMetz Cedex 03France

Personalised recommendations