Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 23, pp 14599–14608 | Cite as

Effects of heat treatment on the structure and photocatalytic activity of polymer carbon nitride

  • Qingbo YuEmail author
  • Qixiang Xu
  • Huiqin Li
  • Kuan Yang
  • Xianhua LiEmail author
Polymers & biopolymers


Heat treatment technology is usually used for the processing of metal materials. In this paper, polymer carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is secondarily calcined at 590 °C. A series of nitrogen-doped g-C3N4 are obtained by adjusting the holding time. The doping of nitrogen atoms changes the electronic structure of the catalyst and narrows the band gap. In addition, the escape of ammonia during the secondary calcinations leads to the increase in the specific surface area of the catalyst, which is helpful to enhance the photosensitization effect. Among them, the sample obtained by holding time at 2 h has the highest photogenerated carrier separation efficiency, the largest specific surface area and the best photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.



This work is supported by the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (2015M571913) and the National Nature Science Foundation of China (21401001).


  1. 1.
    Yuan L, Han C, Yang MQ, Xu YJ (2016) Photocatalytic water splitting for solar hydrogen generation: fundamentals and recent advancements. Int Rev Phys Chem 35:1–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang W, Tadé MO, Shao ZP (2015) Research progress of perovskite materials in photocatalysis––and photovoltaics-related energy conversion and environmental treatment. Chem Soc Rev 44:5371–5408. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li D, Shi WD (2016) Recent developments in visible-light photocatalytic degradation of antibiotics. Chin J Catal 37:792–799. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Low JX, Cheng B, Yu JG (2017) Surface modification and enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance of TiO2: a review. Appl Surf Sci 392:658–686. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jiang Q, Zhang LQ, Wang HL, Yang XL, Meng JH, Liu H, Yin ZG, Wu JL, Zhang XW, You JB (2017) Enhanced electron extraction using SnO2 for high-efficiency planar-structure HC(NH2)(2)PbI3-based perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy 2:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    He J, Chen L, Wang F, Liu Y, Chen P, Au CT, Yin SF (2016) CdS nanowires decorated with ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets as an efficient photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution. Chemsuschem 9:624–630. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fang J, Zhao H, Liu Q, Zhang W, Gu J, Su Y, Abbas W, Su H, You Z, Zhang D (2018) AgBr/diatomite for the efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B. J Nanopart Res 20:61–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yan X, Zhao H, Li T, Zhang W, Liu Q, Yuan Y, Huang L, Yao L, Yao J, Su H, Su H, Gu J, Zhang D (2019) In situ synthesis of BiOCl nanosheets on three dimensional hierarchical structures for efficient photocatalysis under visible light. Nanoscale 11:10203–10208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xu J, Wang YJ, Zhu YF (2013) Nanoporous graphitic carbon nitride with enhanced photocatalytic performance. Langmuir 29:10566–10572. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Han Q, Wang B, Gao J, Cheng ZH, Zhao Y, Zhang ZP, Qu LT (2016) Atomically thin mesoporous nanomesh of graphitic-C3N4 for high-efficiency photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. ACS Nano 10:2745–2751. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li XH, Chen JS, Wang X, Sun J, Antonietti M (2011) Metal-free activation of dioxygen by grapheme/g-C3N4 nanocomposites: functional dyads for selective oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons. J Am Chem Soc 133:8074–8077. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang JC, Yao HC, Fan ZY, Zhang L, Wang JS, Zang SQ, Li ZJ (2016) Indirect Z-scheme BiOl/g-C3N4 photocatalysts with enhanced photoreduction CO2 activity under visible light irradiation. Acs Appl Mater Interface 8:3765–3775. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin B, Li H, An H, Hao WB, Wei JJ, Dai YZ, Ma CS, Yang GD (2018) Preparation of 2D/2D g-C3N4 nanosheet@ZnIn2S4 nanoleaf heterojunctions with well-designed high-speed charge transfer nanochannels towards high-efficiency photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Appl Catal B 220:542–552. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wen JQ, Xie J, Zhang HD, Zhang AP, Liu YJ, Chen XB, Li X (2017) Constructing Multifunctional Metallic Ni Interface Layers in the g-C3N4 nanosheets/amorphous NiS heterojunctions for efficient photocatalytic H2 generation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:14031–14042. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang LB, Yuan XZ, Zeng GM, Wu ZB, Liang J, Chen XH, Leng LJ, Wang H, Wang H (2018) Metal-free efficient photocatalyst for stable visible-light photocatalytic degradation of refractory pollutant. Appl Catal B 221:715–725. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lu S, Li C, Li HH, Zhao YF, Gong YY, Niu LY, Liu XJ, Wang T (2017) The effects of nonmetal dopants on the electronic, optical and chemical performances of monolayer g-C3N4 by first-principles study. Appl Surf Sci 392:966–974. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chai B, Yan JT, Wang CL, Ren ZD, Zhu YC (2017) Enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B over phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride. Appl Surf Sci 391:376–383. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sun CZ, Zhang H, Liu H, Zheng XX, Zou WX, Dong L, Qi L (2018) Enhanced activity of visible-light photocatalytic H2 evolution of sulfur-doped g-C3N4 photocatalyst via nanoparticle metal Ni as cocatalyst. Appl Catal B 235:66–74. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hasija V, Raizada P, Sudhaik A, Sharma K, Kumar A, Singh P, Jonnalagadda SB, Thakur VK (2019) Recent advances in noble metal free doped graphitic carbon nitride basednanohybrids for photocatalysis of organic contaminants in water: a review. Appl Mater Today 15:494–524. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang L, Jin Z, Lu H, Lin T, Ruan S, Zhao XS, Zeng YZ (2018) Improving the visible-light Photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride by carbon black doping. ACS Omega 3:15009–15017. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mubeen M, Deshmukh K, Peshwe DR, Dhoble SJ, Deshmukh AD (2019) Alteration of the electronic structure and the optical properties of graphitic carbon nitride by metal ion doping. Spectrochim Acta A 207:301–306. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jiang L, Yuan X, Zeng G, Liang J, Wu Z, Yu H, Mo D, Wang H, Xiao Z, Zhou C (2019) Nitrogen self-doped g-C3N4 nanosheets with tunable band structures for enhanced photocatalytic tetracycline degradation. J. Colloid Interface Sci 536:17–29. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kannan PR, Muthupandi V, Arivazhagan B, Devakumaran K (2017) microstructure and mechanical properties of heat-treated T92 Martensitic heat resistant steel. High Temp Mater Process 36:771–778. Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gao Y, Hu YB, Zhou DC, Qiu JB (2017) Effect of heat treatment mechanism on upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped NaYF4 oxyfluoride glass-ceramics. J Alloys Compd 699:303–307. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shabestari SG, Moemeni H (2004) Effect of copper and solidification conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Si–Mg alloys. J Mater Process Technol 153–154:193–198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kang YY, Yang YQ, Yin LC, Kang XD, Liu G, Cheng HM (2015) An amorphous carbon nitride photocatalyst with greatly extended visible-light-responsive range for photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Adv Mater 27:4572–4577. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shi GD, Yang L, Liu ZW, Chen X, Zhou JQ, Yu Y (2018) Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO over copper decorated g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced yield and selectivity. Appl Surf Sci 427:1165–1173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sabzi M, Dezfuli SM (2018) Post weld heat treatment of hypereutectoid hadfield steel: characterization and control of microstructure, phase equilibrium, mechanical properties and fracture mode of welding joint. J Manuf Process 34:313–328. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Op L, DeSutter TM, Casey FXM, Wick AF, Khan E (2018) Thermal remediation alters soil properties––a review. J Environ Manag 206:826–835. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang X, Maeda K, Thomas A, Takanabe K, Xin G, Carlsson JM, Domen K, Antonietti M (2009) A metal-free polymeric photocatalyst for hydrogen production from water under visible light. Nat Mater 8:76–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lotsch BV, Dçblinger M, Sehnert J, Seyfarth L, Senker J, Oeckler O, Schnick W (2007) Unmasking melon by a complementary approach employing electron diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations-structural characterization of a carbon nitride polymer. Chem Eur J 13:4969–4980. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fang JW, Fan HQ, Li MM, Long CB (2015) Nitrogen self-doped graphitic carbon nitride as efficient visible light photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution. J Mater Chem A 3:13819–13826. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen T, Quan W, Yu L, Hong Y, Song C, Fan M, Xiao L, Gu W, Shi W (2016) One-step synthesis and visible-light-driven H2 production from water splitting of Ag quantum dots/g-C3N4 photocatalysts. J Alloys Compd 686:628–634. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Feng DQ, Cheng YH, He J, Zheng LC, Shao DW, Wang WC, Wang WH, Lu F, Dong H, Liu H, Zheng RK, Liu H (2017) Enhanced photocatalytic activities of g-C3N4 with large specific surfacearea via a facile one-step synthesis process. Carbon 125:454–463. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dong H, Guo X, Yang C, Ouyang ZZ (2018) Synthesis of g-C3N4 by different precursors under burning explosion effect and its photocatalytic degradation for tylosin. Appl Catal B 230:65–76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liang QH, Li Z, Huang ZH, Kang FY, Yang QH (2015) Holey graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets with carbon vacancies for highly improved photocatalytic hydrogen production. Adv Funct Mater 25:6885–6892. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang ZY, Guan W, Sun YJ (2015) Water-assisted production of honeycomb-like g-C3N4 with ultralong carrier lifetime and outstanding photocatalytic activity. Nanoscale 7:2471–2479. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liang QH, Li Z, Huang ZH, Kang FY, Yang QH (2015) Hydrogen evolution: holey graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets with carbon vacancies for highly improved photocatalytic hydrogen production. Adv Funct Mater 25:6885–6892. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cao J, Zhang J, Dong X, Fu H, Zhang X, Lv X, Li Y, Jiang G (2019) Defective borate-decorated polymer carbon nitride: enhanced photocatalytic NO removal, synergy effect and reaction pathway. Appl Catal B 249:266–274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    She X, Liu L, Ji H, Mo Z, Li Y, Huang L, Du DL, Xu H, Li HM (2016) Template-free synthesis of 2D porous ultrathin nonmetal-doped g-C3N4 nanosheets with highly efficientphotocatalytic H2 evolution from water under visible light. Appl Catal B 187:144–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang S, Liu Y, Gu P, Ma R, Wen T, Zhao G, Li L, Ai Y, Hu C, Wang X (2019) Enhanced photodegradation of toxic organic pollutants using dual-oxygendoped porous g-C3N4: mechanism exploration from both experimental and DFT studies. Appl Catal B 248:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Huang ZF, Song J, Pan L, Wang Z, Zhang X, Zou JJ, Mi W, Zhang X, Wang L (2015) Carbon nitride with simultaneous porous network and O-doping for efficient solar-energy-driven hydrogen evolution. Nano Energy 12:646–656. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringAnhui University of Science and TechnologyHuainanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringAnhui University of Science and TechnologyHuainanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations