Advertisement

Hybrid approach for augmenting the impact resistance of p-aramid fabrics: grafting of ZnO nanorods and impregnation of shear thickening fluid

  • Priyal Dixit
  • Aranya Ghosh
  • Abhijit MajumdarEmail author
Chemical routes to materials
  • 26 Downloads

Abstract

A novel hybrid approach has been developed and implemented to enhance the impact resistance of p-aramid fabric-based soft armour material. ZnO nanorods of diameter ca. ~ 100 nm were developed on the surface of p-aramid (Kevlar®) fabrics by seed and growth method followed by impregnation of fabrics with silica-based shear thickening fluid (STF) having 65% (w/w) concentration. The impact resistance of neat Kevlar fabric (KF), ZnO nanorod grafted Kevlar fabric (ZnO-KF), STF impregnated Kevlar fabric (STF-KF) and ZnO nanorod grafted-STF impregnated Kevlar fabric (ZnO-STF-KF) was studied. The impact energy absorption by ZnO-KF and STF-KF was higher by 29.6% and 10%, respectively, as compared to that of neat fabric (KF). The hybrid approach of modifying the Kevlar fabric with ZnO nanorods and impregnation with STF (ZnO-STF-KF) enhanced the impact energy absorption by 36.6% as compared to that of neat Kevlar fabric. The substantial increase in impact energy absorption in the case of ZnO-STF-KF can be attributed to the combined contribution of increased inter-yarn friction caused by ZnO nanorods and shear thickening behaviour of STF. The ZnO nanorod grafted high-performance fabrics impregnated with STF could be a promising candidate for the development of soft body armour material.

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Malakooti MH, Hwang H-S, Goulbourne NC, Sodano HA (2017) Role of ZnO nanowire arrays on the impact response of aramid fabrics. Compos Part B Eng 127:222–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hwang H-S, Malakooti MH, Patterson BA, Sodano HA (2015) Increased interyarn friction through ZnO nanowire arrays grown on aramid fabric. Compos Sci Technol 107:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tabiei A, Nilakantan G (2008) Ballistic impact of dry woven fabric composites: a review. Appl Mech Rev 61:010801-13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shim VPW, Lim CT, Foo KJ (2001) Dynamic mechanical properties of fabric armour. Int J Impact Eng 25:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Erlich DC, Shockey DA, Simons JW (2003) Slow penetration of ballistic fabrics. Text Res J 73:179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lim C, Tan VB, Cheong C (2002) Perforation of high-strength double-ply fabric system by varying shaped projectiles. Int J Impact Eng 27:577–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Majumdar A, Laha A (2016) Effects of fabric construction and shear thickening fluid on yarn pull-out from high-performance fabrics. Text Res J 86:2056–2066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Martínez MA, Navarro C, Cortés R et al (1993) Friction and wear behaviour of Kevlar fabrics. J Mater Sci 28:1305–1311.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01191969 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carr DJ (1999) Failure mechanisms of yarns subjected to ballistic impact. J Mater Sci 18:585–588.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006655301587 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kirkwood KM, Kirkwood JE, Lee Young Sil et al (2004) Yarn pull-out as a mechanism for dissipating ballistic impact energy in Kevlar® KM-2 fabric: part I: quasi-static characterization of yarn pull-out. Text Res J 74:920–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guo Z, Hong J, Zheng J, Chen W (2014) Loading rate effects on dynamic out-of-plane yarn pull-out. Text Res J 84:1708–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen W, Qian X-M, He X-Q et al (2012) Surface modification of Kevlar by grafting carbon nanotubes. J Appl Polym Sci 123:1983–1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chu Y, Chen X, Wang Q, Cui S (2014) An investigation on sol–gel treatment to aramid yarn to increase inter-yarn friction. Appl Surf Sci 320:710–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    LaBarre ED, Calderon-Colon X, Morris M et al (2015) Effect of a carbon nanotube coating on friction and impact performance of Kevlar. J Mater Sci 50:5431–5442.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-015-9088-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hazarika A, Deka BK, Kim D et al (2015) Growth of aligned ZnO nanorods on woven Kevlar® fiber and its performance in woven Kevlar® fiber/polyester composites. Compos Part Appl Sci Manuf 78:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Malakooti MH, Zhou Z, Spears JH et al (2016) Biomimetic nanostructured interfaces for hierarchical composites. Adv Mater Interfaces 3:1500404-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ehlert GJ, Sodano HA (2009) Zinc oxide nanowire interphase for enhanced interfacial strength in lightweight polymer fiber composites. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 1:1827–1833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Majumdar A, Butola BS, Srivastava A (2014) Development of soft composite materials with improved impact resistance using Kevlar fabric and nano-silica based shear thickening fluid. Mater Des 1980–2015(54):295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Srivastava A, Majumdar A, Butola BS (2012) Improving the impact resistance of textile structures by using shear thickening fluids: a review. Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci 37:115–129.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10408436.2011.613493 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Park Y, Kim Y, Baluch AH, Kim C-G (2014) Empirical study of the high velocity impact energy absorption characteristics of shear thickening fluid (STF) impregnated Kevlar fabric. Int J Impact Eng 72:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee YS, Wetzel ED, Wagner NJ (2003) The ballistic impact characteristics of Kevlar woven fabrics impregnated with a colloidal shear thickening fluid. J Mater Sci 38:2825–2833.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024424200221 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wagner NJ, Brady JF (2009) Shear thickening in colloidal dispersions. Phys Today 62:27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chang L, Friedrich K, Schlarb AK et al (2011) Shear-thickening behaviour of concentrated polymer dispersions under steady and oscillatory shear. J Mater Sci 46:339–346.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-010-4817-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baharvandi HR, Alebooyeh M, Alizadeh M et al (2016) The influences of particle–particle interaction and viscosity of carrier fluid on characteristics of silica and calcium carbonate suspensions-coated Twaron® composite. J Exp Nanosci 11:550–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wei M, Sun L, Zhang C et al (2019) Shear-thickening performance of suspensions of mixed ceria and silica nanoparticles. J Mater Sci 54:346–355.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-018-2873-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gürgen S, Kuşhan MC, Li W (2017) Shear thickening fluids in protective applications: a review. Prog Polym Sci 75:48–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown E, Zhang H, Forman NA et al (2011) Shear thickening and jamming in densely packed suspensions of different particle shapes. Phys Rev E 84:031408-11Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Warren J, Offenberger S, Toghiani H et al (2015) Effect of temperature on the shear-thickening behavior of fumed silica suspensions. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:18650–18661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen Q, Zhu W, Ye F et al (2014) pH effects on shear thickening behaviors of polystyrene-ethylacrylate colloidal dispersions. Mater Res Express 1:015303-12Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shan L, Tian Y, Jiang J et al (2015) Effects of pH on shear thinning and thickening behaviors of fumed silica suspensions. Colloids Surf Physicochem Eng Asp 464:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Arora S, Laha A, Majumdar A, Butola BS (2017) Prediction of rheology of shear thickening fluids using phenomenological and artificial neural network models. Korea–Aust Rheol J 29:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tian T, Li W, Ding J, et al (2013) Study of the temperature effect of shear thickening fluid. In: 2013 IEEE/ASME international conference on advanced intelligent mechatronics. IEEE, Wollongong, NSW, pp 833–837Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    He Q, Gong X, Xuan S et al (2015) Shear thickening of suspensions of porous silica nanoparticles. J Mater Sci 50:6041–6049.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-015-9151-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gürgen S, Kuşhan MC (2017) The stab resistance of fabrics impregnated with shear thickening fluids including various particle size of additives. Compos Part Appl Sci Manuf 94:50–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Qin J, Zhang G, Zhou L et al (2017) Dynamic/quasi-static stab-resistance and mechanical properties of soft body armour composites constructed from Kevlar fabrics and shear thickening fluids. RSC Adv 7:39803–39813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Laha A, Majumdar A (2016) Interactive effects of p-aramid fabric structure and shear thickening fluid on impact resistance performance of soft armor materials. Mater Des 89:286–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Decker MJ, Halbach CJ, Nam CH et al (2007) Stab resistance of shear thickening fluid (STF)-treated fabrics. Compos Sci Technol 67:565–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Majumdar A, Butola BS, Srivastava A (2013) An analysis of deformation and energy absorption modes of shear thickening fluid treated Kevlar fabrics as soft body armour materials. Mater Des 51:148–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hasanzadeh M, Mottaghitalab V (2014) The role of shear-thickening fluids (STFs) in ballistic and stab-resistance improvement of flexible armor. J Mater Eng Perform 23:1182–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fahool M, Sabet AR (2016) Parametric study of energy absorption mechanism in Twaron fabric impregnated with a shear thickening fluid. Int J Impact Eng 90:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Park JL, Yoon BI, Paik JG, Kang TJ (2012) Ballistic performance of p -aramid fabrics impregnated with shear thickening fluid; part II—effect of fabric count and shot location. Text Res J 82:542–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Laha A, Majumdar A (2016) Shear thickening fluids using silica-halloysite nanotubes to improve the impact resistance of p -aramid fabrics. Appl Clay Sci 132–133:468–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wang F-F, Zhang Y, Zhang H et al (2018) The influence of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the semi-blunt puncture behavior of woven fabrics impregnated with shear thickening fluid (STF). RSC Adv 8:5268–5279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ávila AF, de Oliveira AM, Leão SG, Martins MG (2018) Aramid fabric/nano-size dual phase shear thickening fluid composites response to ballistic impact. Compos Part Appl Sci Manuf 112:468–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gürgen S, Kuşhan MC (2017) The ballistic performance of aramid based fabrics impregnated with multi-phase shear thickening fluids. Polym Test 64:296–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Textile TechnologyIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations