Antimicrobial activity of biocomposite films containing cellulose nanofibrils and ethyl lauroyl arginate
Food packaging is tailored to keep food fresh by increasing shelf life and preventing microbial deterioration. However, traditional food packaging is commonly made from non-degradable polymers without antimicrobial properties and that pose an environmental threat if not disposed properly. To address this issue, here we describe the preparation of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films and hydrogels with antimicrobial activity against common foodborne pathogens such as verotoxigenic E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium. Furthermore, two grades of negatively charged CNFs with different fibrillation degrees were modified with ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE), which is an antimicrobial agent. CNF films were able to bind LAE molecules up to a maximum concentration of 145–160 ppm. LAE–CNF biocomposite films exerted a bactericidal activity against a major foodborne pathogen present in ready-to-eat food (L. monocytogenes) even at 1% LAE. Our work describes a novel biopolymer-based strategy that overcomes the current hurdles with LAE incorporation into packaging materials, offering a green and antimicrobial alternative for packaging of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products.
The Research Council of Norway is acknowledged for the support to the Norwegian Micro- and Nano-Fabrication Facility, NorFab, project number 245963/F50. Mirjana Filipovic at RISE PFI is acknowledged for skilful assistance in the preparation of the CNF materials. During part of this work, Filomena Silva acknowledged a postdoctoral fellowship [grant number SFRH/BPD/79250/2011] from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia within the scope of QREN—POPH—Advanced Formation programs co-funded by Fundo Social Europeu and MEC. This work was partially funded by FEDER funds through Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade—COMPETE and by National Funds through FCT—Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia within the scope of project PEst-C/SAU/UI0709/2011. The authors also acknowledge the funding provided by the Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (AGL-2015-67362-P), the Gobierno de Aragón (Spain) and Fondo Social Europeo to the GUIA group [financiación grupo GUIA T-10]. The “COST” Action (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) FP1405 “Active and intelligent (fibre-based) packaging—innovation and market introduction” is acknowledged for providing the channel for this collaboration.
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