Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 17, pp 11694–11702 | Cite as

Frequency-dependent material properties of copper and aluminum alloys

  • Daniel LoosEmail author
  • Endre Barti
  • Gunter Schröter
  • Rainer Wagener
  • Tobias Melz


In this paper, the dynamic behavior of copper and aluminum alloys as used in electric drive units is investigated. Isothermal frequency sweeps are performed from 0.1 up to 50 Hz at temperatures of up to 400 °C. An evaluation of the test results at a constant frequency of 1 Hz shows a decrease in the storage modulus and an increase in the material damping. Considering all frequencies, a supplementary frequency dependency related to the material composition is detected. The lower the volume fraction of the alloying elements, the higher the impact of temperature and frequency on the material properties. The variations of the material parameters allow applying the time temperature superposition principle to estimate the dynamic behavior beyond the limited tested frequency range and temperatures by fitting the Williams–Landel–Ferry equation. Additional thermal aging of CU-ETP specimens does not affect the storage modulus, but diminishes the material damping. The findings show that each material has to be tested with regard to its respective application, material composition and manufacturing process. Furthermore, they demonstrate the relevance of considering the frequency-dependent material properties of low-alloyed copper and aluminum, especially in case of temperatures above 100 °C.



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BMW GroupMunichGermany
  2. 2.Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBFDarmstadtGermany

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