Advertisement

Application of hydrogen for rare-earth gadolinium purification and thermodynamic simulation of system

  • Jiongkun Wang
  • Guoling LiEmail author
  • Kai Fu
  • Xingguo Li
Metals

Abstract

Due to the extremely high chemical reactivity of gadolinium (Gd), especially the removal difficulty of trace impurities, preparation of ultra-high purity Gd is challenging. Herein, we introduce H2 into Ar plasma arc, building a reductive gas flow with high-density thermal energy. H2 + Ar plasma arc melting performs a wonderful refining effect despite of high initial concentrations. Migration ways and removal mechanism of various impurities have been systematically analyzed. Electromagnetic driving force and turbulence thermal flow of the hydrogen plasma arc are numerically simulated. Results show that activated hydrogen ions, dissociated in plasma arc and bringing special physical and chemical interactions, are supposed to be the cause for the excellent refining effect.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51804174), Postdoctoral Research Foundation of China (2017M612203) and Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2017BEE010).

References

  1. 1.
    Wang WZ, Li JK, Liu ZM (2018) Controlling the morphology and size of (Gd0.98-x Tb0.02Eu (x)) (2)O-3 phosphors presenting tunable emission: formation process and luminescent properties. J Mater Sci 53:12265–12283.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-018-2505-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Luo D, Chen BB, Li XY, Liu ZJ, Liu XW, Liu XH, Shi C, Zhao XS (2018) Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped porous carbon anchored CeO2 quantum dots as an efficient catalyst for formaldehyde oxidation. J Mater Chem A 6:7897–7902.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ta00076j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ray A, Basu T, Behera B, Kumar M, Thapa R, Nayak P (2018) Role of Gd-doping in conduction mechanism of BFO-PZO nanocrystalline composites: experimental and first-principles studies. J Alloys Compd 768:198–213.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.07.116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mandari KK, Police AKR, Do JY, Kang M, Byon C (2018) Rare earth metal Gd influenced defect sites in N doped TiO2: Defect mediated improved charge transfer for enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production. Int J Hydrog Energy 43:2073–2082.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.12.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guo FS, Layfield RA (2017) Strong direct exchange coupling and single-molecule magnetism in indigo-bridged lanthanide dimers. Chem Commun 53:3130–3133.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c7cc01046j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Imandoust A, Barret CD, Oppedal AL, Whittington WR, Paudel Y, El Kadiri H (2017) Nucleation and preferential growth mechanism of recrystallization texture in high purity binary magnesium-rare earth alloys. Acta Mater 138:27–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2017.07.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang L, Huang Y, Feyerabend F, Willumeit R, Mendis C, Kainer KU, Hort N (2013) Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg–Dy–Gd–Zr alloys for medical applications. Acta Biomater 9:8499–8508.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2013.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Srinivasan A, Huang Y, Mendis CL, Lawert CB, Kainer KU, Hort N (2014) Investigations on microstructures, mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg–Gd–Zn alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 595:224–234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2013.12.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Isshiki M, Mimura K, Uchikoshi M (2011) Preparation of high purity metals for advanced devices. Thin Solid Films 519:8451–8455.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2011.05.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang JK, Fu K, Li XG, Li GL (2019) Behavior of impurity elements in pure gadolinium during ultra-high purification. Vacuum 162:67–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2019.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Isshiki M, Waseda Y (2001) Purification process and characterization of ultra high purity metals. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhou ZH, Ruan JM, Mo HB (2005) Preparation of 6N high-purity indium by method of physical-chemical purification and electrorefining. J Mater Sci 40:6529–6533.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-005-1817-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang Y, He WJ, Liu N, Chapuis A, Luan BF, Liu Q (2018) Effect of pre-annealing deformation on the recrystallized texture and grain boundary misorientation in commercial pure titanium. Mater. Charact. 136:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2017.11.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yoji M, Hiroki A, Toshiyuki F, Susumu O, Masaharu K (2013) Effects of Si on mechanical properties and microstructure evolution in ultrafine-grained Cu–Si alloys processed by accumulative roll bonding. Acta Mater 61:1537–1544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2012.11.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mimura K, Sato T, Isshiki M (2008) Purification of lanthanum and cerium by plasma arc zone melting. J Mater Sci 43:2721–2730.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-008-2449-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oh JM, Roh KM, Lim JW (2016) Brief review of removal effect of hydrogen-plasma arc melting on refining of pure titanium and titanium alloys. Int J Hydrogen Energy 48:23033–23041.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.09.082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mimura K, Matsumoto K, Isshiki M (2011) Purification of hafnium by hydrogen plasma arc melting. Mater Trans 52:159–165.  https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.M2010296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lalev GM, Lim JW, Munirathnam NR, Choi GS, Uchikoshi M, Mimura K, Isshik M (2009) Purification of Cu by hydrogen plasma-arc zone melting and characterization of trace impurities by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Mater Charact 60:60–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2008.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mimura K, Kornukai T, Isshiki M (2005) Purification of chromium by hydrogen plasma-arc zone melting. Mater Sci Eng A 403:11–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2005.03.113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bereznitsky M, Bloch J, Yonovich M, Jacob I (2012) Hydrogen absorption in CexGd1-x alloys. J Alloys Compd 532:102–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.04.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shalaan E, Ehses KH, Schmitt H (2006) In-situ X-ray-diffraction studies of hydrogenated nanocrystalline gadolinium films. J Mater Sci 41:7454–7458.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-0798-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fu K, Li GL, Li JG, Liu Y, Tian WH, Zheng J, Li XG (2016) Study on the thermodynamics of the gadolinium-hydrogen binary system (H/Gd = 0.0–2.0) and implications to metallic gadolinium purification. J Alloys Compd 673:131–137.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.02.201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Knacke O (1991) Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nesmeyanov AN (1963) Vapor pressure of the chemical elements. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dischler B (2012) Handbook of spectral lines in diamond: tables and interpretations. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pearse RWB, Gaydon AG (1976) The identification of molecular spectra, 4th edn. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhu J (1991) FAST-2D: a computer program for numerical simulation of two dimensional incompressible flows with complex boundaries, Report No. 690. Institute for Hydromechanics, University of KarlsruheGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhu J (1992) An introduction and guide to the computer program FAST-3D, Report No. 691, Institute for Hydromechanics, University of KarlsruheGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Li GL, Guo H, Li L, Wang CY, Zheng J, Tian WH, Li HP, Li XG (2016) Purification of terbium by means of argon and hydrogen plasma arc melting. J Alloys Compd 659:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.10.180 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Materials Science and EngineeringQingdao UniversityQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Shipboard Aviation Security and Station ManagementNaval Aviation UniversityQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Beijing National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular EngineeringPeking UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations