In situ TEM investigation of self-ion irradiation of nanoporous gold
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The ability of nanoporous metals to avoid accumulation of damage under ion beam irradiation has been the focus of several studies in recent years. The width of the interconnected ligaments forming the network structure typically is on the order of tens of nanometers. In such confined volumes with high amounts of surface area, the accumulation of damage (defects such as stacking-fault tetrahedra and dislocation loops) can be mitigated via migration and annihilation of these defects at the free surfaces. In this work, in situ characterization of radiation damage in nanoporous gold (np-Au) was performed in the transmission electron microscope. Several samples with varying average ligament size were subjected to gold ion beams having three different energies (10 MeV, 1.7 MeV and 46 keV). The inherent radiation tolerance of np-Au was directly observed in real time, for all ion beam conditions, and the degree of ion-induced damage accumulation in np-Au ligaments is discussed here.
The authors would like to thank Daniel Buller for his assistance with the Tandem accelerator, as well Brittany Muntifering and Daniel Bufford for their help during TEM imaging. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science user facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525. The views expressed in the article do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Department of Energy or the United States Government. Portions of the sample preparation and characterization were performed at the University of Kentucky: access to characterization instruments and staff assistance was provided by the Electron Microscopy Center at the University of Kentucky, supported in part by the National Science Foundation/EPSCoR Award No. 1355438 and by the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
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Conflict of interest
The authors certify that we have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
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