Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 9, pp 7005–7015 | Cite as

Preparation and catalytic performance of polymer gold nanocomposites

  • Yang Li
  • Xuecheng XuEmail author
Composites

Abstract

The development of efficient heterogeneous catalysts for reductive conversion of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) is of vital significance for environmental remediation, dyestuff industry, pharmaceutical industry. We reported that Au@D201, a polymer gold nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles loaded on D201 resin, was prepared using macroporous styrenic ion exchange resin D201 as carrier, chloroauric acid as gold source and sodium borohydride as reducing agent. The average diameter of gold nanoparticles in Au@D201 composites is 5 nm, which has excellent catalytic properties for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The Au@D201 was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, mercury injection instrument, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results reveal that some of the gold nanoparticles were loaded on the surface of the resin, and most of the gold nanoparticles were in the resin pores. A strong chemical interaction, between the gold nanoparticles and the resin, is similar to the cross-linking action of the macromolecules. The gold nanoparticles provide a new cross-linking point for the resin, increasing the degree of cross-linking of the resin and causing some degree of resin ordering to occur. XPS shows that the electron density of the outer layer of the gold atom increases, indicating that there are some conjugated interactions between the resin and gold atoms. Conjugated interactions and the gold quantum size effect are the main reasons for improving the catalytic effect of the composite material. When the gold nano-loading amount is 0.1%, it still has an excellent catalytic effect on the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol.

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts to declare. No conflict of interest exits in the submission of this manuscript, and manuscript is approved by all authors for publication. All the authors listed have approved the manuscript that is enclosed.

References

  1. 1.
    Pozun ZD, Rodenbusch SE, Keller E, Tran K, Tang W, Stevenson KJ, Henkelman G (2013) A systematic investigation of p-nitrophenol reduction by bimetallic dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 117(15):7598–7604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hernandez F, Ibanez M, Portoles T, Cervera MI, Sancho JV, Lopez FJ (2015) Advancing towards universal screening for organic pollutants in waters. J Hazard Mater 282:86–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pandey S, Mishra SB (2014) Catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol by using platinum nanoparticles stabilised by guar gum. Carbohydr Polym 113:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Huang C, Ye W, Liu Q, Qiu X (2014) Dispersed Cu(2)O octahedrons on h-BN nanosheets for p-nitrophenol reduction. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6(16):14469–14476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singh C, Goyal A, Singhal S (2014) Nickel-doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: efficient catalysts for the reduction of nitroaromatic compounds and photo-oxidative degradation of toxic dyes. Nanoscale 6(14):7959–7970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hoseini SJ, Rashidi M, Bahrami M (2011) Platinum nanostructures at the liquid–liquid interface: catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. J Mater Chem 21(40):16170–16176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin X, Wu M, Wu D, Kuga S, Endo T, Huang Y (2011) Platinum nanoparticles using wood nanomaterials: eco-friendly synthesis, shape control and catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction. Green Chem 13(2):283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee J, Park JC, Song H (2008) A Nanoreactor Framework of a Au@SiO2 Yolk/Shell Structure for Catalytic Reduction of p-Nitrophenol. Adv Mater 20(8):1523–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cui Y, Chen H, Tang D, Yang H, Chen G (2012) Au(III)-promoted polyaniline gold nanospheres with electrocatalytic recycling of self-produced reactants for signal amplification. Chem Commun (Camb) 48(83):10307–10309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ke F, Zhu J, Qiu LG, Jiang X (2013) Controlled synthesis of novel Au@MIL-100(Fe) core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic performance. Chem Commun (Camb) 49(13):1267–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang P, Sui Y, Xiao G, Wang Y, Wang C, Liu B, Zou G, Zou B (2013) Facile fabrication of faceted copper nanocrystals with high catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction. J Mater Chem A 1(5):1632–1638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu Y, Cao CY, Chen Z, Liu H, Li P, Dou ZF, Song WG (2013) Au nanoparticles embedded into the inner wall of TiO2 hollow spheres as a nanoreactor with superb thermal stability. Chem Commun (Camb) 49(30):3116–3118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karanjit S, Jinasan A, Samsook E, Dhital RN, Motomiya K, Sato Y, Tohji K, Sakurai H (2015) Significant stabilization of palladium by gold in the bimetallic nanocatalyst leading to an enhanced activity in the hydrodechlorination of aryl chlorides. Chem Commun (Camb) 51(64):12724–12727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fang CS, Oh KH, Oh A, Lee K, Park S, Kim S, Park JK, Yang H (2016) An ultrasensitive and incubation-free electrochemical immunosensor using a gold-nanocatalyst label mediating outer-sphere-reaction-philic and inner-sphere-reaction-philic species. Chem Commun (Camb) 52(34):5884–5887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang Y, Mo Z, Zhang P, Zhang C, Han L, Guo R, Gou H, Wei X, Hu R (2016) Synthesis of flower-like TiO2 microsphere/graphene composite for removal of organic dye from water. Mater Des 99:378–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cheng J, Wang Y, Teng C, Shang Y, Ren L, Jiang B (2014) Preparation and characterization of monodisperse, micrometer-sized, hierarchically porous carbon spheres as catalyst support. Chem Eng J 242:285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yang X, Pachfule P, Chen Y, Tsumori N, Xu Q (2016) Highly efficient hydrogen generation from formic acid using a reduced graphene oxide-supported AuPd nanoparticle catalyst. Chem Commun (Camb) 52(22):4171–4174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ren Z-H, Li H-T, Gao Q, Wang H, Han B, Xia K-S, Zhou C-G (2017) Au nanoparticles embedded on urchin-like TiO2 nanosphere: an efficient catalyst for dyes degradation and 4-nitrophenol reduction. Mater Des 121:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Iqbal K, Iqbal A, Kirillov AM, Wang B, Liu W, Tang Y (2017) A new Ce-doped MgAl-LDH@Au nanocatalyst for highly efficient reductive degradation of organic contaminants. J Mater Chem A 5(14):6716–6724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Du C, Guo Y, Guo Y, Gong X-Q, Lu G (2017) Synthesis of a hollow structured core–shell Au@CeO2–ZrO2 nanocatalyst and its excellent catalytic performance. J Mater Chem A 5(11):5601–5611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schoeman E, Bradshaw SM, Akdogan G, Snyders CA, Eksteen JJ (2017) The extraction of platinum and palladium from a synthetic cyanide heap leach solution with strong base anion exchange resins. Int J Min Process 162:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kononova ON, Duba EV, Shnaider NI, Pozdnyakov IA (2017) Ion exchange extraction of platinum (IV) and palladium (II) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Rus J Appl Chem 90(8):1239–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xiang D, Liu X, Sun J, Xiao FS, Sun J (2009) A novel route for synthesis of styrene carbonate using styrene and CO2 as substrates over basic resin R201 supported Au catalyst. Catal Today 148:383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sharma AS, Shah D, Kaur H (2015) Gold nanoparticles supported on dendrimer@ resin for the efficient oxidation of styrene using elemental oxygen. RSC Adv. 5:42935–42941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Praharaj S, Nath S, Ghosh SK, Kundu S, Pal T (2004) Immobilization and recovery of Au nanoparticles from anion exchange resin: resin-bound nanoparticle matrix as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Langmuir 20:9889–9892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sánchez BS, Gross MS, Querini CA (2009) Pt catalysts supported on ion exchange resins for selective glycerol oxidation. Effect of Au incorporation. Catal Today 148:383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cyganowski P, Leśniewicz A, Polowczyk I, Chęcmanowski J, Koźlecki T, Pohl P, Jermakowicz-Bartkowiak D (2018) Surface-activated anion exchange resins for synthesis and immobilization of gold and palladium nano-and microstructures. React Funct Polym 124:90–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lamey D, Beswick O, Cárdenas-Lizana F, Dyson PJ, Sulman E, Kiwi-Minsker L (2017) Highly selective immobilized bimetallic Ni–Au nanoparticle catalyst for the partial hydrogenation of m -dinitrobenzene. Appl Catal A 542:182–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang S, Zhao Q, Wei H, Wang JQ, Cho M, Cho HS, Terasaki O, Wan Y (2013) Aggregation-free gold nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbons: toward highly active and stable heterogeneous catalysts. J Am Chem Soc 135(32):11849–11860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu J, Zhou Y, Han F, Chen D, Chen L (2017) Synthesis of mesoporous Au–TiO2 nanocomposites via a one-pot sol-gel process with enhanced photocatalytic activity. Mater Lett 207:109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu D, Zhang Y, Liu J, Li H, Zhou L, Wu S, Gao X (2018) Preparation of core–shell structured Au@SiO2. J Mater Sci 53:8086–8097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nag S, Pramanik A, Chattopadhyay D, Bhattacharyya M (2018) Green-fabrication of gold nanomaterials using Staphylococcus warneri from Sundarbans estuary: an effective recyclable nanocatalyst for degrading nitro aromatic pollutants. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25(3):2331–2349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rashid MH, Bhattacharjee RR, Kotal A, Mandal TK (2006) Synthesis of spongy gold nanocrystals with pronounced catalytic activities. Langmuir 22:7141–7143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wu SH, Tseng CT, Lin YS, Lin CH, Hung Y, Mou CY (2011) Catalytic nano-rattle of Au@hollow silica: towards a poison-resistant nanocatalyst. J Mater Chem 21:789–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations