Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 8, pp 6258–6271 | Cite as

New underfill material based on copper nanoparticles coated with silica for high thermally conductive and electrically insulating epoxy composites

  • Junhui Li
  • Xiang Li
  • Yu ZhengEmail author
  • Zhan LiuEmail author
  • Qing TianEmail author
  • Xiaohe LiuEmail author
Composites
  • 37 Downloads

Abstract

With the microelectronics technology going toward its physical limits and the emergence of three-dimensional chip stack architectures, now more than ever there are both needs and opportunities for novel materials to help address some of these pressing thermal management challenges. In this paper, a high-thermal-conductivity insulative SiO2-coated nano-Cu particle is prepared for new-type underfill materials of high-performance microelectronics packaging. It was found that nano-Cu can be successfully coated with SiO2 by using the surface modification between cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and silane coupling agent although nano-Cu particles have silicon-disordered property during the coating process of tetraethyl orthosilicate hydrolysis. Moreover, the thermal conductivity of epoxy mixed with nano-Cu@SiO2 as the packaging underfill is dramatically increased from 0.15 W/m K of the pure-EP and 0.60 W/m K of the EP/SiO2 to 2.9 W/m K due to electronic heat transfer, heat network and fast heat transfer center. It effectively releases the heat generated by the IC device, and the service life of the device is significantly improved from 63 min of pure-EP and 350 min of the EP/nano-SiO2 to 1039 min. The new material creates a challenging environment for keeping modern electronic devices cool, a critical factor in determining their speed, efficiency and reliability.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported the Changsha City Science and Technology Major Project (No. kq1804009) and the China High Technology R&D Program 973 (No. 2015CB057206).

References

  1. 1.
    Ferain I, Colinge CA, Colinge JP (2011) Multigate transistors as the future of classical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Nature 479:310–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stillmaker A, Baas B (2017) Scaling equations for the accurate prediction of CMOS device performance from 180 Nm to 7 Nm. Integration 58:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Waldrop M (2016) The semiconductor industry will soon abandon its pursuit of Moore’s law. Now things could get a lot more interesting. Nature 530:144–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kang K (2015) High-mobility three-atom-thick semiconducting films with wafer-scale homogeneity. Nature 520:656–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kato F, Nakagawa H, Aoyagi M (2013) A novel method of hotspot temperature reduction for a 3D stacked CMOSIC chip device fabricated on an ultrathin substrate. J Micromech Microeng 23:025020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Melamed S (2015) Impact of die thinning on the thermal performance of a central TSV bus in a 3D stacked circuit. Microelectron J 46:1106–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Melamed S (2017) Thermal impact of extreme die thinning in bump-bonded three-dimensional integrated circuits. Microelectron Reliab 79:380–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moore AL, Shi L (2014) Emerging challenges and materials for thermal management of electronics. Mater Today 17:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen H (2016) Thermal conductivity of polymer-based composites: fundamentals and applications. Prog Polym Sci 59:41–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Singh V (2014) High thermal conductivity of chain-oriented amorphous polythiophene. Nat Nanotechnol 9:384–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim GH (2015) High thermal conductivity in amorphous polymer blends by engineered interchain interactions. Nat Mater 14:295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen J, Huang X, Zhu Y, Jiang P (2017) Cellulose nanofiber supported 3D interconnected BN nanosheets for epoxy nanocomposites with ultrahigh thermal management capability. Adv Funct Mater 27:1604754–1604762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ning N (2012) Realizing the enhancement of interfacial interaction in semicrystalline polymer/filler composites via interfacial crystallization. Prog Polym Sci 37:1425–1455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guo Q (2016) Effects of surface-modified alkyl chain length of silica fillers on the rheological and thermal mechanical properties of underfill. IEEE Trans Compon Packag Manuf 6:1796–1803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee S, Yim MJ, Baldwin D (2012) Effect of nano-particles on heterogeneous void nucleation in no-flow underfill materials. IEEE Trans Compon Packag Manuf 2:1059–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yu J (2010) Vertically aligned boron nitride nanosheets: chemical vapor synthesis, ultraviolet light emission, and superhydrophobicity. ACS Nano 4:414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huang X, Iizuka T, Jiang P, Ohki Y, Tanaka T (2012) Role of Interface on the thermal conductivity of highly filled dielectric epoxy/AlN composites. J Phys Chem C 116:13629–13639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhou T, Wang X, Liu X, Xiong D (2010) Improved thermal conductivity of epoxy composites using a hybrid multi-walled carbon nanotube/micro-SiC filler. Carbon 48:1171–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marouf BT, Mai YW, Bagheri R, Pearson RA (2016) Toughening of epoxy nanocomposites: nano and hybrid effects. Polym Rev 56:70–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hwang Y, Kim M, Kim J (2014) Fabrication of surface-treated SiC/epoxy composites through a wetting method for enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. Chem Eng J 246:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lei W (2015) Boron nitride colloidal solutions, ultralight aerogels and freestanding membranes through one-step exfoliation and functionalization. Nat Commun 6:8849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shi Z, Fu R (2012) Thermal conductivity and fire resistance of epoxy molding compounds filled with Si3N4 and Al(OH). Mater Des 34:820–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kemaloglu S, Ozkoc G (2010) Properties of thermally conductive micro and nano size boron nitride reinforced silicon rubber composites. Thermochim Acta 499:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhu H (2014) Highly thermally conductive papers with percolative layered boron nitride nanosheets. ACS Nano 8:3606–3613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zeng X (2017) A combination of boron nitride nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers for the preparation of a nanocomposite with high thermal conductivity. ACS Nano 11:5167–5178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Que R (2014) Generating electric current based on the solvent-dependent charging effects of defective boron nitride nanosheets. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:19752–19757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xiao F (2015) Edge-hydroxylated boron nitride nanosheets as an effective additive to improve the thermal response of hydrogels. Adv Mater 27:7196–7203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Balandin AA (2011) Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials. Nat Mater 10:569–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang F (2016) Silver nanoparticle-deposited boron nitride nanosheets as fillers for polymeric composites with high thermal conductivity. Sci Rep 6:19394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhi C, Bando Y, Tang C, Kuwahara H, Golberg D (2009) Large-scale fabrication of boron nitride nanosheets and their utilization in polymeric composites with improved thermal and mechanical properties. Adv Mater 21:2889–2893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Huang X (2013) Polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane-modified boron nitride nanotube based epoxy nanocomposites: an ideal dielectric material with high thermal conductivity. Adv Funct Mater 23:1824–1831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen C (2014) High-performance epoxy/silica coated silver nanowire composites as underfill material for electronic packaging. Compos Sci Technol 105:80–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang L (2016) Improved performance by SiO2 hollow nanospheres for silver nanowire-based flexible transparent conductive films. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:27055–27063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Li Y (2017) Tuning dielectric properties and energy density of poly (vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites by quasi core-shell structured BaTiO3@Graphene oxide hybrids. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 1:1–11Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rahman IA, Padavettan V (2012) Synthesis of silica nanoparticles by sol–gel: size-dependent properties, surface modification, and applications in silica-polymer nanocomposites—a review. J Nanomater 8:132424Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liang X (2012) Diffusion through the shells of yolk–shell and core–shell nanostructures in the liquid phase. Angew Chem Int Ed 51:8034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gu P, Cai R, Zhou Y, Shao Z (2010) Si/C composite lithium-ion battery anodes synthesized from coarse silicon and citric acid through combined ball milling and thermal pyrolysis. Electrochim Acta 55:3876–3883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shiomi S, Kawamori M, Yagi S, Matsubara E (2015) One-pot synthesis of silica-coated copper nanoparticles with high chemical and thermal stability. J Colloid Interface Sci 460:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang Y, Chen M, Zhou F (2002) High tensile ductility in nanostructured metal. Nature 391:912–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tanaka K (2010) Preparation for highly sensitive MRI contrast agents using core/shell type nanoparticles consisting of multiple SPIO cores with thin silica coating. Langmuir 26:11759–11762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ju YS, Goodson KE (1999) Phonon scattering in silicon films with thickness of order 100 nm. Appl Phys Lett 74:3005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jiang B, Wang H, Wen G, Wang E, Zhou W (2016) Copper–graphite–copper sandwich: superior heat spreader with excellent heat-dissipation ability and good weldability. RSC Adv 6(30):25128–25136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Umer A, Naveed S, Ramzan N (2016) Experimental study of laminar forced convective heat transfer of deionized water based copper (I) oxide nanofluids in a tube with constant wall heat flux. Heat Mass Transf 52(10):2015–2025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Qiao G, Lasfargues M, Alexiadis A, Ding Y (2017) Simulation and experimental study of the specific heat capacity of molten salt based nanofluids. Appl Therm Eng 111:1517–1522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gorantla K, Shaik S, Setty A (2017) Effect of different double glazing window combinations on heat gain in buildings for passive cooling in various climatic regions of india. Mater Today 4(2):1910–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hu Y, Du G, Chen N (2016) A novel approach for Al2O3/epoxy composites with high strength and thermal conductivity. Compos Sci Technol 124:36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing and School of Mechanical and Electronical EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Huizhou UniversityHuizhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy and School of Materials Science and EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations