Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 5, pp 4297–4305 | Cite as

Si, N-codoped carbon dots: preparation and application in iron overload diagnosis

  • Songliang He
  • Suwen Qi
  • Zhencheng Sun
  • Guoshuai Zhu
  • Ke Zhang
  • Wenwen Chen
Materials for life sciences
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

Heteroatom doping is a straightforward and smart strategy to improve the fluorescence efficiency of carbon dots (CDs). We synthesized the Si, N-codoped CDs (SiNCDs) with high quantum yield up to 29.7% through one-step hydrothermal method. The linear range for Fe3+ was between 0 and 200 μM, and the limit of detection was about 5 μM, which presented potential for Fe quantification in serum to diagnose Fe overload. In addition, the SiNCDs demonstrated good selectivity to Fe3+ among high concentrations of metal ions, amino acids and H2O2, so there is no need to mix additional reagents as the colorimetric method does in clinic, making SiNCDs more competitive in clinical application. Furthermore, we explored the practicability of SiNCDs by detecting Fe in serum from five healthy volunteers and three patients suffering Fe overload. The recovery rate was from 87.1 to 113.6%, which confirmed the application prospect of SiNCDs in clinical diagnostics.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81701789), Medical Research Foundation in Guangdong Province (A2016079) and Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2017A030310361).

Supplementary material

10853_2018_3150_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3267 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Drakesmith H, Nemeth E, Ganz T (2015) Ironing out ferroportin. Cell Metab 22:777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Netz DJA, Stith CM, Stumpfig M, Kopf G, Vogel D, Genau HM, Stodola JL, Lill R, Burgers PMJ, Pierik AJ (2012) Eukaryotic DNA polymerases require an iron-sulfur cluster for the formation of active complexes Nat. Chem Biol 8:125Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Torti SV, Torti FM (2013) Iron and cancer: more ore to be mined Nat. Rev Cancer 13:342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Addison GM, Beamish MR, Jacobs A, Hales CN, Hodgkins M, Llewellin P (1972) An immunoradiometric assay for ferritin in the serum of normal subjects and patients with iron deficiency and iron overload. J Clin Pathol 25:326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kohgo Y, Niitsu Y, Kondo H, Kato J, Tsushima N, Sasaki K, Hirayama M, Numata T, Nishisato T, Urushizaki I (1987) Serum transferrin receptor as a new index of erythropoiesis. Blood 70:1955Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prieto J, Barry M, Sherlock S (1975) Serum ferritin in patients with iron overload and with acute and chronic liver diseases. Gastroenterology 68:525Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stevens RG, Graubard BI, Micozzi MS, Neriishi K, Blumberg BS (1994) Moderate elevation of body iron level and increased risk of cancer occurrence and death Int. J Cancer 56:364Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Serum Iron Archived 2006-10-28 at the Wayback Machine. University of Illinois Medical Center. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serum_iron#cite_ref-uimc_1-2. Accessed 6 July 2006
  9. 9.
    Falandysz J, Szymczyk K, Ichihashi H, Bielawski L, Gucia M, Frankowska A, Yamasaki SI (2001) ICP/MS and ICP/AES elemental analysis (38 elements) of edible wild mushrooms growing in Poland. Food Addit Contam 18:503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carter P (1971) Spectrophotometric determination of serum iron at the submicrogram level with a new reagent (ferrozine). Anal Biochem 40:450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Forman DT, Vye MV (1980) Immunoradiometric serum ferritin concentration compared with stainable bone-marrow iron as indices to iron stores. Clin Chem 26:145Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dupuy AM, Debarge L, Poulain M, Badiou S, Ross M, Cristol JP (2009) Determination of serum ferritin using immunoturbidimetry or chemiluminescent detection in comparison with radioimmunoassay a compendium of a methodological juxtaposition. Clin Lab 55:207Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ceriotti F, Ceriotti G (1980) Improved direct specific determination of serum iron and total iron-binding capacity. Clin Chem 26:327Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Qian XH, Xu ZC (2015) Fluorescence imaging of metal ions implicated in diseases. Chem Soc Rev 44:4487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chan WCW, Nie SM (1998) Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science 281:2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li XM, Wu Y, Zhang SL, Cai B, Gu Y, Song JZ, Zeng HB (2016) CsPbX3 quantum dots for lighting and displays: room-temperature synthesis, photoluminescence superiorities, underlying origins and white light-emitting diodes. Adv Funct Mater 26:2435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yahia-Ammar A, Sierra D, Merola F, Hildebrandt N, Le Guevel X (2016) Self-assembled gold nanoclusters for bright fluorescence imaging and enhanced drug delivery. ACS Nano 10:2591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Qu KG, Wang JS, Ren JS, Qu XG (2013) Carbon dots prepared by hydrothermal treatment of dopamine as an effective fluorescent sensing platform for the label-free detection of iron(III) ions and dopamine. Chem Eur J 19:7243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhao JJ, Huang MJ, Zhang LL, Zou MB, Chen DX, Huang Y, Zhao SL (2017) Unique approach to develop carbon dot-based nanohybrid near-infrared ratiometric fluorescent sensor for the detection of mercury ions. Anal Chem 89:8044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dong S, Yuan Z, Zhang L, Lin Y, Lu C (2017) Rapid screening of oxygen-states in carbon quantum dots by chemiluminescence probe. Anal Chem 89:12520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sidhu JS, Singh A, Garg N, Singh N (2017) Carbon dot based, naphthalimide coupled fret pair for highly selective ratiometric detection of thioredoxin reductase and cancer screening. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:25847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Qian ZS, Shan XY, Chai LJ, Ma JJ, Chen JR, Feng H (2014) Si-doped carbon quantum dots: a facile and general preparation strategy, bioimaging application, and multifunctional sensor. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:6797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhou J, Zhou H, Tang JB, Deng SE, Yan F, Li WJ, Qu MH (2017) Carbon dots doped with heteroatoms for fluorescent bioimaging: a review. Microchim Acta 184:343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jiang K, Sun S, Zhang L, Wang YH, Cai CZ, Lin HW (2015) Bright-yellow-emissive n-doped carbon dots: preparation, cellular imaging, and bifunctional sensing. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:23231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baptista FR, Belhout SA, Giordani S, Quinn SJ (2015) Recent developments in carbon nanomaterial sensors. Chem Soc Rev 44:4433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moulder JF, Stickle WF, Sobel PE, Bomben KD (1992) Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-a reference book of standard spectra for identification and interpretation of XPS data, 2nd edn. Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Eden PrairieGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Qian ZS, Ma JJ, Shan XY, Feng H, Shao LX, Chen JR (2014) Highly luminescent N-doped carbon quantum dots as an effective multifunctional fluorescence sensing platform. Chem Eur J 20:2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    NCFCL Standards (1998) Determination of serum iron and total iron-binding capacity; approved standard NCCLS Publ. H17-A 48Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical EngineeringShenzhen University Health Science CenterShenzhenChina

Personalised recommendations