Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 5, pp 4306–4313 | Cite as

Density measurement of Ti–X (X = Cu, Ni) melts and thermodynamic correlations

  • Manabu WatanabeEmail author
  • Masayoshi Adachi
  • Hiroyuki FukuyamaEmail author


The densities of Ti–X (X = Cu, Ni) melts were measured by a combination of electromagnetic levitation and a static magnetic field. The static magnetic field suppressed surface oscillation of the levitated sample droplet, which enhances the accuracy and precision of density measurements. Densities of the Ti–X melts varied linearly over a wide temperature range including a supercooled temperature region. The excess volumes of Ti–X were slightly negative over the entire composition range. These results are discussed within a thermodynamic framework considering the relationship between excess volume and thermodynamic properties such as excess Gibbs energy and enthalpy of mixing. The excess volume correlated more strongly with excess Gibbs energy for various binary alloy systems than with the enthalpy of mixing.



The authors thank Professor Jürgen Brillo (German Aerospace Center) and Associate Professor Hidekazu Kobatake (Hirosaki University) for helpful discussions and critical comments. This work was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant Nos. 26249113 and 18J11474.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced MaterialsTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

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