Using in operando diffraction to relate lattice strain with degradation mechanism in a NMC battery
Crystallographic structural changes in a commercial 5 Ah prismatic graphite–NMC battery were investigated during its operation using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction. The characteristic diffraction peaks for the anode and cathode were identified, and their peak positions were linked to the charge–discharge cycle of the battery. The edge of the negative terminal of battery was shown to undergo irregular cycling behavior. Stresses developed at the battery layer interfaces were proposed to be the source for this deterioration, which limits the lifetime of the battery. The effect of pulse discharge on strain in cathode has also been studied.
The authors wish to express their gratitude for the financial support provided by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Dr. Antti Makineen under Contract No. N00014-15-1-2492. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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