Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 974–996 | Cite as

Polyaniline-based conducting hydrogels

  • Radha D. Pyarasani
  • Tippabattini Jayaramudu
  • Amalraj JohnEmail author


Conducting polymer hydrogels (CPHs) have been identified as a promising class of polymeric material for a wide range of applications such as biomedical, energy, environmental, health and agricultural domains. CPHs have received immense consideration because of their biocompatibility, hydrophilic properties, biodegradable nature, electroconductivity, ample resources and ease of preparation. Flexible nature of CPHs is considered as a potential candidate for some innovative technologies like flexible electronics especially flexible supercapacitors and solar cells, and their biocompatibility nature plays a key role in biomedical applications such as bioconductors, biosensors, implantable medical devices, electro-stimulated drug delivery systems, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering. When it comes to the matter of conductivity, among conducting polymers, polyaniline has been studied extensively for its stability, variable electrical conductivity, inexpensive raw material and better compatibility with other biopolymers. This review focuses on recent developments in polyaniline-based conducting hydrogels and their applications in biomedical and energy applications. Different strategies of synthesis, thermal, structural, electrochemical behavior of CPHs and their further opportunities and challenges are also discussed here.



Three dimension


Ammonium persulfate


Aminotrimethylene phosphonic acid


Carcinoma antigen-125


Carboxymethyl cellulose


Conducting polymer


Conducting polymeric hydrogels


Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide


Cyclic voltammetry




Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy


Electromagnetic interference shielding


Electrostatic discharge




Fluorescent sodium




Fourier transform infrared


Galvanostatic charge/discharge


Glycerol diglycidyl ether


Gelatin methacrylate


Gum ghatti


Hydrochloric acid


Itaconic acid


Potassium persulfate


Light-emitting diodes


Methylene blue


Multifunctional hydrogel


Malachite green


Multiwall carbon nanotube




N-doped nanocarbon


Polyacrylic acid




Poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)








Polyethylene glycol


Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate


Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)


Poly(isopropyl acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)






Poly(styrene sulfonate)






Polyvinyl alcohol




Reduced graphene oxide


Reduced graphene oxide hydrogel




Scanning electron microscopy


Squarewave voltammetry


X-ray diffraction



Authors acknowledge PIEI (Quimico-Bio) and Proyecto de Investigacion enlace FONDECYT (No. 300061) Universidad de Talca. PR wishes to acknowledge VRIP, Universidad Catolica del Maule. TJ wishes to acknowledge FONDECYT Postdoctoral Project (No. 3170272).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vicerrectoría de Investigación y PostgradoUniversidad Catolica del MauleTalcaChile
  2. 2.Laboratory of Materials Science, Instituto de Química de Recursos NaturalesUniversidad de TalcaTalcaChile

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