Advertisement

The effect of temperature on electric field assisted sintering in dye-sensitized solar cells

  • Mohsen Shojaeifar
  • Ezeddin Mohajerani
Energy materials
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

Electric field assisted sintering (EFAS) is one of the interesting technical strategies for enhancing the performance of DSSCs. To this aim, the present study aimed to present an efficient approach for increasing the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs by implementing EFAS procedure at different sintering temperatures (350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). Interestingly, the EFAS procedure played a positive role on optical and electrical properties simultaneously. Based on the results, applying an external electric field within the sintering procedure results in improving the light harvesting capability of mesoporous TiO2 film at all sintering temperatures, increasing the photocurrent and fill factor efficiently, leading to an improvement in the performance, and reducing the resistive effects and charging recombination sites significantly. EFAS is broadly applicable to improve the performance of mesoporous-based devices such as dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells or reduce the cost and time of manufacturing by decreasing the sintering temperature. Finally EFAS method may lead to higher performance in flexible DSSCs.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was partly supported by the Iran Ministry of Science and Technology. The authors would like to thank Dr. Mohammad Reza Fathollahi for his thankful recommendations.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10853_2018_2934_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1208 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    O’Regan B, Gratzel M, Low-Cost A (1991) High-efficiency solar-cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. Nature 353:737–740.  https://doi.org/10.1038/353737a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gong J, Sumathy K, Qiao Q, Zhou Z (2017) Review on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): advanced techniques and research trends. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 68:234–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmad S, Guillén E, Kavan L, Grätzel M, Nazeeruddin MK (2013) Metal free sensitizer and catalyst for dye sensitized solar cells. Energy Environ Sci 6:3439–3466.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ee41888j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim H, Lee W, Song H, Yoon J (2017) Plasmonic-enhanced graphene flake counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. J Appl Phys 121:243103-1–243103-7.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4989810 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yun MJ, Sim YH, Cha SI, Seo SH, Lee DY (2017) High energy conversion efficiency with 3-D micro-patterned photoanode for enhancement diffusivity and modification of photon distribution in dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci Rep 7:15027-1–15027-10.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15110-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Adineh M, Tahay P, Ameri M, Safari N, Mohajerani E (2016) Fabrication and analysis of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using porphyrin dyes with catechol anchoring groups. RSC Adv 6:14512–14521.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5RA23584G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yella A, Lee H-W, Tsao HN, Yi C, Chandiran AK, Nazeeruddin MK, Diau EW-G, Yeh C-Y, Zakeeruddin SM, Grätzel M (2011) Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells with Cobalt(II/III)—based redox electrolyte exceed 12 percent efficiency. Science 334(80):629–633.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1209688 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boppella R, Mohammadpour A, Illa S, Farsinezhad S, Basak P, Shankar K, Manorama SV (2016) Hierarchical rutile TiO2 aggregates: a high photonic strength material for optical and optoelectronic devices. Acta Mater 119:92–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2016.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hu Q, Li Y, Huang F, Zhang Z, Ding K, Wei M (2005) ZnO nanowires array grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nat Publ Gr 5:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11499 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mori R, Ueta T, Sakai K (2010) Organic solvent based TiO2 dispersion paste for dye-sensitized solar cells prepared by industrial production level procedure. J Mater Sci (Full Set) 46:1341–1350.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-010-4925-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu J, Lan Z, Lin J, Huang M, Huang Y, Fan L, Luo G (2015) Electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem Rev 115:2136–2173.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr400675m CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sahito IA, Ahmed F, Khatri Z, Sun KC, Jeong SH (2017) Enhanced ionic mobility and increased efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell by adding lithium chloride in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber as electrolyte medium. J Mater Sci 52:13920–13929.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1473-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hu Y, Yella A, Guldin S, Schreier M, Stellacci F, Grätzel M, Stefi M (2014) High-surface-area porous platinum electrodes for enhanced charge transfer. Adv Energy Mater 4:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201400510 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yun D, Jeong YJ, Ra H, Kim J, Park JH, Park S, An TK, Seol M, Park CE, Jang J, Chung DS (2016) Effective way to enhance the electrode performance of multiwall carbon nanotube and poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrene sulfonate) composite using hcl—methanol treatment. J Phys Chem C 120:10919–10926.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b01747 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    El Ruby Mohamed A, Rohani S (2011) Modified TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs): progressive strategies towards visible light responsive photoanode, a review. Energy Environ Sci 4:1065–1086.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c0ee00488j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Basu K, Benetti D, Zhao H, Jin L, Vetrone F (2016) Enhanced photovoltaic properties in dye sensitized solar cells by surface treatment of SnO2 photoanodes. Sci Rep 6:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep23312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nakade S, Saito Y, Kubo W, Kitamura T, Wada Y, Yanagida S (2003) Influence of TiO2 nanoparticle size on electron diffusion and recombination in dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells. J Phys Chem B 107:8607–8611.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp034773w CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chou TP, Zhang Q, Russo B, Fryxell GE, Cao G, Science M, Uni V, Hall R (2007) Titania particle size effect on the overall performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. J Phys Chem C 111:6296–6302.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp068939f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Andrei C, O’Reilly T, Zerulla D (2010) A spatially resolved study on the Sn diffusion during the sintering process in the active layer of dye sensitised solar cells. Phys Chem Chem Phys 12:7241–7245.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c000072h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sun X, Sun Q, Li Y, Sui L, Dong L (2013) Effects of calcination treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectric properties of all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by TiO2 nanorod arrays. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15:18716–18720.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3cp51941d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schattauer S, Reinhold B, Albrecht S, Fahrenson C, Schubert M, Janietz S, Neher D (2012) Influence of sintering on the structural and electronic properties of TiO2 nanoporous layers prepared via a non-sol-gel approach. Colloid Polym Sci 290:1843–1854.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00396-012-2708-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chou C-S, Yanga R-Y, Weng M-H, Yeh C-H (2008) The influence of sintering temperature on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell. Adv Manuf Focus New Emerg Technol 594:281–298.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.594.281 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tripathi B, Bhatt P, Chandra Kanth P, Yadav P, Desai B, Kumar Pandey M, Kumar M (2015) Temperature induced structural, electrical and optical changes in solution processed perovskite material: application in photovoltaics. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 132:615–622.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2014.10.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brown TM, De Rossi F, Di Giacomo F, Mincuzzi G, Zardetto V, Realea A, Di Carloa A (2014) Progress in flexible dye solar cell materials, processes and devices. J Mater Chem A 2:10788–10817.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ta00902a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Senthilarasu S, Peiris TAN, García-can J, Wijayantha KGU (2012) Preparation of nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells: influence of mechanical compression. J Phys Chem C 116:19053–19061.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp301638p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weerasinghe HC, Huang F, Cheng Y (2013) Fabrication of flexible dye sensitized solar cells on plastic substrates. Nano Energy 2:174–189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2012.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zen S, Inoue Y, Ono R (2015) Low temperature (150 °C) fabrication of high-performance TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells using ultraviolet light and plasma treatments of TiO2 paste containing.pdf. J Appl Phys 117:103302-1–103302-5.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4914873 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cologna M, Rashkova B, Raj R (2010) Flash sintering of nanograin zirconia in o 5 s at 850 1 C. J Am Ceram Soc 93:3556–3559.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2010.04089.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jha SK, Lebrun JM, Seymour KC, Kriven WM, Raj R (2016) Journal of the European ceramic society electric field induced texture in titania during experiments related to flash sintering. J Eur Ceram Soc 36:257–261.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2015.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shojaeifar M, Mohajerani E, Fathollahi M (2018) Electric field assisted sintering to improve the performance of nanostructured dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). J Appl Phys 123:13101–13102.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5010009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gholizadeh A, Reyhani A, Parvin P, Mortazavi SZ (2017) Efficiency enhancement of ZnO nanostructure assisted Si solar cell based on fill factor enlargement and UV-blue spectral down-shifting. J Phys D Appl Phys 50:185501-1–185501-11.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa6454 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koide N, Islam A, Chiba Y, Han L (2006) Improvement of efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on analysis of equivalent circuit. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 182:296–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2006.04.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sarker S, Seo HW, Kim DM (2014) Calculating current density-voltage curves of dye-sensitized solar cells: a straight-forward approach. J Power Sour 248:739–744.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.09.101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ni M, Leung MKH, Leung DYC, Sumathy K (2006) Theoretical modeling of TiO2/TCO interfacial effect on dye-sensitized solar cell performance. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 90:2000–2009.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2006.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Niu H, Zhang S, Wang R, Guo Z, Shang X, Gan W, Qin S, Wan L, Xu J (2014) Dye-sensitized solar cells employing a multifunctionalized hierarchical SnO2 nano flower structure passivated by TiO2 nanogranulum. Am Chem Soc 118:3504–3513.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp409203w CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Alvar MS, Javadi M, Abdi Y, Arzi E (2016) Enhancing the electron lifetime and diffusion coefficient in dye-sensitized solar cells by patterning the layer of TiO2 nanoparticles. J Appl Phys 19:114302-1–114302-7.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4943772 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Xu B, Wang G, Fu H (2016) Enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of dye- sensitized solar cells by the incorporation of flower-like Bi2S3: Eu3+ sub-microspheres. Sci Rep 6:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep23395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Marinova N, Valero S, Delgado JL (2017) Organic and perovskite solar cells: working principles, materials and interfaces. J Colloid Interface Sci 488:373–389.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2016.11.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Murayama M, Mori T (2006) Evaluation of treatment effects for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells using equivalent circuit analysis. Thin Solid Films 509:123–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2005.09.145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Choudhury MSH, Kato S, Kishi N, Soga T (2017) Nickel tetraphenylporphyrin doping into ZnO nanoparticles for flexible dye-sensitized solar cell application Nickel tetraphenylporphyrin doping into ZnO nanoparticles for flexible dye-sensitized solar cell application. Jpn J Appl Phys 56:04CS05-1–04CS05-7.  https://doi.org/10.7567/jjap.56.04cs05 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhao D, Peng T, Lu L, Cai P, Jiang P, Bian Z (2008) Effect of annealing temperature on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells made with mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles. J Phys Chem C 112:8486–8494.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp800127x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang B, Shen S, Mao SS (2017) Black TiO2 for solar hydrogen conversion. J Mater 3:96–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmat.2017.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dusastre V (2011) Materials for sustainable energy. Nature Publishing Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ghadiri E, Taghavinia N, Zakeeruddin SM, Gra M (2010) Enhanced electron collection efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanostructured TiO2 hollow fibers. Nano Lett 10:1632–1638.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl904125q CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laser and Plasma Research InstituteShahid Beheshti University, G.C.TehranIran

Personalised recommendations