Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 53, Issue 14, pp 10122–10134 | Cite as

Implementation of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes on magnetorheological elastomer

  • Siti Aishah Abdul Aziz
  • Ubaidillah
  • Saiful Amri Mazlan
  • Nik I. Nik Ismail
  • Seung-Bok Choi
Composites
  • 100 Downloads

Abstract

This work studies the effects of loading various functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (carboxyl, –COOH-MWCNTs) on the morphological and the field-dependent rheological properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). A new type of MRE, which is reinforced by various loading from 0 to 1.5 wt% of COOH-MWCNT, is fabricated and experimentally investigated. The morphology of COOH-MWCNT and MRE with COOH-MWCNTs is characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the COOH-MWCNTs are well embedded and dispersed randomly in the MRE structures. The rheological properties under different magnetic fields are evaluated using parallel plate rheometers. The influence of COOH-MWCNT content on the viscoelastic performance of the MRE is systematically investigated. It is found that when a higher content of COOH-MWCNT (up to 1.0 wt%) is added in the MRE, the MRE exhibits a higher MR effect of up to 17.5%. It is also shown that COOH-MWCNT acts as a reinforcing agent that leads to an enhancement in MR performance.

Abbreviation

MR

Magnetorheological

MRE

Magnetorheological elastomer

MRF

Magnetorheological fluid

MRG

Magnetorheological grease

NR

Natural rubber

SMR

Standard Malaysia rubber

CIP

Carbonyl iron particle

COOH-MWCNT

Carboxyl multiwall carbon nanotubes

EPO

Epoxidized palm oil

G

Storage modulus

G0

Storage modulus (without magnetic field)

FESEM

Field emission scanning electron microscopy

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

MRD

Magnetorheological device

ΔG

Magneto-induced modulus

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges the financial funded by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia PRGS (Vot No: 4L667), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia under GUP Grant (Vot No: 13H55), PDRU Grant (Vot No: 04E02) and also Malaysian Rubber Board for their technical advice and facilities, SHERA Project Prime Award: AID-497-A-16-00004, USAID, as well as Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) through Hibah Mandatory 2018.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Mazlan SA (2008) The behaviour of magnetorheological fluids in squeeze mode. Dublin City University, DublinGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yunus NA, Mazlan SA, Ubaidillah et al (2016) Rheological properties of isotropic magnetorheological elastomers featuring an epoxidized natural rubber. Smart Mater Struct 25:107001.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/25/10/107001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mohamad N, Mazlan SA, Ubaidillah (2016) Effect of carbonyl iron particles composition on the physical characteristics of MR grease. p 40027Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ubaidillah, Imaduddin F, Li YC et al (2016) A new class of magnetorheological elastomers based on waste tire rubber and the characterization of their properties. Smart Mater Struct 25:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/25/11/115002 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang W, Gong XL, Xuan SH, Xu YG (2010) High-performance hybrid magnetorheological materials: preparation and mechanical properties. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:12471–12476.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie101904f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li W, Zhang X (2008) Research and applications of MR elastomers. Recent Patents Mech Eng 1:161–166.  https://doi.org/10.2174/2212797610801030161 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carlson JD, Jolly MR (2000) MR fluid, foam and elastomer devices. Mechatronics 10:555–569.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0957-4158(99)00064-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jolly MR, Carlson JD, Muñoz BC (1996) A model of the behaviour of magnetorheological materials. Smart Mater Struct 5:607–614.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/5/5/009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yu M, Fu J, Ju BX et al (2013) Influence of x-ray radiation on the properties of magnetorheological elastomers. Smart Mater Struct 22:125010.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/22/12/125010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kavlicoglu BM, Gordaninejad F, Wang X (2013) Study of a magnetorheological grease clutch. Smart Mater Struct 22:125030.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/22/12/125030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boczkowska A, Awietjan SF (2009) Urethane magnetorheological elastomers—manufacturing, microstructure and properties. Solid State Phenom 154:107–112.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.154.107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chertovich A, Stepanov G, Kramarenko E, Khokhlov A (2010) New composite elastomers with giant magnetic response. Macromol Mater Eng 295:336–341.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mame.200900301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jiang W, Yao J, Gong X, Chen L (2008) Enhancement in magnetorheological effect of magnetorheological elastomers by surface modification of iron particles. Chin J Chem Phys 21:87–92.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1674-0068/21/01/87-92 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Agirre-Olabide I, Elejabarrieta MJ, Bou-Ali MM (2015) Matrix dependence of the linear viscoelastic region in magnetorheological elastomers. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 26:1880–1886.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389X15580658 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhu J, Xu Z, Guo Y (2013) Experimental and modeling study on magnetorheological elastomers with different matrices. J Mater Civ Eng 25:1762–1771.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khimi SR, Pickering KL (2015) Comparison of dynamic properties of magnetorheological elastomers with existing antivibration rubbers. Compos Part B Eng 83:175–183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2015.08.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pickering KL, Raa Khimi S, Ilanko S (2015) The effect of silane coupling agent on iron sand for use in magnetorheological elastomers part 1: surface chemical modification and characterization. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 68:377–386.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2014.10.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sui G, Zhong WH, Yang XP et al (2008) Preparation and properties of natural rubber composites reinforced with pretreated carbon nanotubes. Polym Adv Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pat.1163 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Damiani R (2014) Interface control and viscoelastic behavior of magnetorheological nanocomposites. University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ge L, Gong X, Fan Y, Xuan S (2013) Preparation and mechanical properties of the magnetorheological elastomer based on natural rubber/rosin glycerin hybrid matrix. Smart Mater Struct 22:115029.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/22/11/115029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen L, Gong X, Jiang W et al (2007) Investigation on magnetorheological elastomers based on natural rubber. J Mater Sci 42:5483–5489.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-0975-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ahmad Khairi MH, Mazlan SA, Ubaidillah et al (2017) The field-dependent complex modulus of magnetorheological elastomers consisting of sucrose acetate isobutyrate ester. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 28:1993–2004.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389X16682844 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang Y, Zhang X, Oh J, Chung K (2015) Fabrication and properties of magnetorheological elastomers based on CR/ENR self-crosslinking blends. Smart Mater Struct 24:95006.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/24/9/095006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sorokin VV, Ecker E, Stepanov GV et al (2014) Experimental study of the magnetic field enhanced Payne effect in magnetorheological elastomers. Soft Matter 10:8765–8776.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C4SM01738B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wu J, Gong X, Fan Y, Xia H (2010) Anisotropic polyurethane magnetorheological elastomer prepared through in situ polycondensation under a magnetic field. Smart Mater Struct 19:105007.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/19/10/105007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhou Y, Jerrams S, Betts A, et al (2013) The effect of microstructure on the dynamic equi- biaxial fatigue behaviour of magnetorheological elastomers. In: 8th European conference on constitutive models for rubbers (ECCMR VIII). pp 25–28Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Koo J-H, Dawson A, Jung H-J (2012) Characterization of actuation properties of magnetorheological elastomers with embedded hard magnetic particles. J Intell Mater Syst Struct 23:1049–1054.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389X12439635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li GH, Huang XG, Gu XY, Wang J (2013) Fabrication and mechanical properties study of the magnetorheological elastomer. Appl Mech Mater 376:148–152.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.376.148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ubaidillah, Sutrisno J, Purwanto A, Mazlan SA (2015) Recent progress on magnetorheological solids: materials, fabrication, testing, and applications. Adv Eng Mater 17:563–597.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201400258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li Y, Li J, Li W, Du H (2014) A state-of-the-art review on magnetorheological elastomer devices. Smart Mater Struct 23:123001.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/23/12/123001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Aloui S, Klüppel M (2015) Magneto-rheological response of elastomer composites with hybrid-magnetic fillers. Smart Mater Struct 24:25016.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/24/2/025016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li Y, Li J, Li W, Samali B (2013) Development and characterization of a magnetorheological elastomer based adaptive seismic isolator. Smart Mater Struct 22:35005.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/22/3/035005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen L, Gong XL, Li WH (2008) Effect of carbon black on the mechanical performances of magnetorheological elastomers. Polym Test 27:340–345.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2007.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yu M, Zhu M, Fu J et al (2015) A dimorphic magnetorheological elastomer incorporated with Fe nano-flakes modified carbonyl iron particles: preparation and characterization. Smart Mater Struct 24:115021.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/24/11/115021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Padalka O, Song HJ, Wereley NM et al (2010) Stiffness and damping in Fe Co, and Ni nanowire-based magnetorheological elastomeric composites. IEEE Trans Magn 46:2275–2277.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2010.2044759 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li R, Sun LZ (2014) Dynamic viscoelastic behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotube-reinforced magnetorheological (MR) nanocomposites. J Nanomech Micromech 4:A4013014.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NM.2153-5477.0000065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li R, Sun LZ (2011) Dynamic mechanical behavior of magnetorheological nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes. Appl Phys Lett 99:131912.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3645627 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bica I, Anitas EM, Bunoiu M et al (2014) Hybrid magnetorheological elastomer: influence of magnetic field and compression pressure on its electrical conductivity. J Ind Eng Chem 20:3994–3999.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2013.12.102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Landa RA, Soledad Antonel P, Ruiz MM et al (2013) Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel-based nanoparticles and nanochains. J Appl Phys 114:213912.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4839735 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Aziz SAA, Mazlan SA, Ismail NIN et al (2016) Effects of multiwall carbon nanotubes on viscoelastic properties of magnetorheological elastomers. Smart Mater Struct 25:77001.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/25/7/077001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abdullateef AA, Thomas SP, Al-Harthi MA et al (2012) Natural rubber nanocomposites with functionalized carbon nanotubes: mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and morphology studies. J Appl Polym Sci 125:E76–E84.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.35021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Petriccione A, Zarrelli M, Antonucci V, Giordano M (2014) Aggregates of chemically functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes as viscosity reducers. Materials (Basel) 7:3251–3261.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7043251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Qiu L, Chen Y, Yang Y et al (2013) A study of surface modifications of carbon nanotubes on the properties of polyamide 66/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites. J Nanomater 2013:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/252417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kong I, Ahmad SH, Shanks R (2016) Properties enhancement in multiwalled carbon nanotube-magnetite hybrid-filled polypropylene natural rubber nanocomposites through functionalization and processing methods. Sci Eng Compos Mater 23:257–267.  https://doi.org/10.1515/secm-2014-0124 Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Silva VA, de Folgueras LC, Cândido GM et al (2013) Nanostructured composites based on carbon nanotubes and epoxy resin for use as radar absorbing materials. Mater Res 16:1299–1308.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392013005000146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Abdul Aziz SA, Mazlan SA, Nik Ismail NI et al (2017) An enhancement of mechanical and rheological properties of magnetorheological elastomer with multiwall carbon nanotubes. J Intell Mater Syst Struct.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389X17705211 Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ondreas F, Jancar J (2015) Temperature, frequency, and small static stress dependence of the molecular mobility in deformed amorphous polymers near their glass transition. Macromolecules 48:4702–4716.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.5b00550 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zhang H, Wei Y, Kang Z et al (2017) Influence of partial substitution for CB with MWNTs on performance of CB-filled NR composites. Micro Nano Lett 12:117–122.  https://doi.org/10.1049/mnl.2016.0003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jung HS, Kwon SH, Choi HJ et al (2016) Magnetic carbonyl iron/natural rubber composite elastomer and its magnetorheology. Compos Struct 136:106–112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Subramaniam K, Das A, Steinhauser D et al (2011) Effect of ionic liquid on dielectric, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polychloroprene rubber composites. Eur Polym J 47:2234–2243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2011.09.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Michler GH, von Schmeling H-HK-B (2013) The physics and micro-mechanics of nano-voids and nano-particles in polymer combinations. Polymer (Guildf) 54:3131–3144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2013.03.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ahmadi M, Shojaei A (2015) Reinforcing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes and high structure carbon black in natural rubber/styrene-butadiene rubber blend prepared by mechanical mixing—effect of bound rubber. Polym Int 64:1627–1638.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pi.4964 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hong CH, Kim MW, Zhang WL et al (2016) Fabrication of smart magnetite/reduced graphene oxide composite nanoparticles and their magnetic stimuli-response. J Colloid Interface Sci 481:194–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2016.07.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mordina B, Tiwari RK, Setua DK, Sharma A (2016) Impact of graphene oxide on the magnetorheological behaviour of BaFe12 O19 nanoparticles filled polyacrylamide hydrogel. Polymer (Guildf) 97:258–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2016.05.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ismail H, Ramly AF, Othman N (2011) The effect of carbon black/multiwall carbon nanotube hybrid fillers on the properties of natural rubber nanocomposites. Polym Plast Technol Eng 50:660–666.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03602559.2010.551380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vehicle System Engineering, Malaysia – Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT)Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)Kuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversitas Sebelas MaretSurakartaIndonesia
  3. 3.Advanced Processing and Product Technology Centre R&D Centre of Excellence (COE)Malaysian Rubber BoardBulohMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringInha UniversityIncheonKorea

Personalised recommendations