Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 8, pp 6579–6585 | Cite as

Basis for the Bauschinger effect in copper single crystals: changes in the long-range internal stress with reverse deformation

  • L. E. Levine
  • M. R. Stoudt
  • A. Creuziger
  • T. Q. Phan
  • Ruqing Xu
  • M. E. KassnerEmail author


The long-range internal stresses (LRIS) associated with the Bauschinger effect were investigated using synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction and reversed deformation experiments. [100]-oriented Cu single crystals were deformed in compression to approximately − 0.3 true strain, followed by tension to a strain of approximately + 0.02. Two conclusions are arrived at from this work: First, the LRIS are confirmed in this work to be small relative to the applied stress both before and after reversal. Second, the LRIS persist after 2% reversed strain despite a significant drop in the overall dislocation density by dynamic recovery. This appears to satisfy the necessary condition for LRIS to significantly contribute to a Bauschinger effect in materials. The pronounced Bauschinger effect in Cu is probably best rationalized by a combination of both the LRIS and the Orowan–Sleeswyk model that relies on a non-uniform distribution of dislocation obstacles without a substantial LRIS.



The support by the National Science Foundation under Grant DMR-1401194 is greatly appreciated. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source (beamline 34-ID-E), a US Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Measurement LaboratoryNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  2. 2.Engineering LaboratoryNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  3. 3.Advanced Photon SourceArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA
  4. 4.Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, RTH 502University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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