Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 7, pp 5927–5941 | Cite as

Core–shell structure acrylamide copolymer grafted on nano-silica surface as an anti-calcium and anti-temperature fluid loss agent

  • Jingyuan Ma
  • Yuxiu AnEmail author
  • Peizhi YuEmail author


The copolymer (PAAN-SiO2) of acrylamide (AM), 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (AMPS), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and modified nano-silica (M-SiO2) was synthesized by free radical polymerization in a water solution. The composition, micro-morphology and thermal stability properties of PAAN-SiO2 were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravity analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that AM, AMPS and NVP were successfully grafted onto the surface of M-SiO2 and formed a spherical core–shell structure copolymer. A significant reduction in the filtration volume was achieved after PAAN-SiO2 added, and this phenomenon was even more pronounced after aging at the high temperature. The filtration volume of base slurry containing 2 wt% of calcium chloride after aging at 180 °C was reduced from 186 to 6 ml after adding 2 wt% of PAAN-SiO2, which exhibited a special property of anti-calcium contamination at high temperature. The interaction mechanism between PAAN-SiO2 and bentonite and calcium ions was analyzed by particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, TEM and X-ray diffraction. Because of the stretching of polymer chain under 180 °C that more amide, sulfonic acid groups and cyclic rigid groups were exposed and the strengthening of the connection between PAAN-SiO2 and clay prevents a large amount of ion exchange between Ca2+ and clay layers, reducing the agglomeration of clay. Meantime, the distribution of clay particles was more extensive and some particles with a size of 1–10 μm plugged the micro-nano-pores on the filter cake, and eventually the thin and compact filter cake was formed.



We would like to thank for the financial support from Natural Nature Science Foundation of China (J218076) and national Key R&D Program of china (2016YFE0202200) for this work.


  1. 1.
    Bland RG, Mullen GA, Gonzalez YN, Harvey FE, Pless ML (2006) HPHT drilling fluid challenges. In: IADC/SPE Asia Pacific drilling technology conference and exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Herrmann H, Bucksch H (eds) (2014) Drilling manual. In: Dictionary Geotechnical Engineering/Wörterbuch GeoTechnik: English–German/Englisch–Deutsch. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p 424Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kelessidis VC, Papanicolaou C, Foscolos A (2009) Application of Greek lignite as an additive for controlling rheological and filtration properties of water–bentonite suspensions at high temperatures: a review. Int J Coal Geol 77(3):394–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zoveidavianpoor M, Samsuri A (2016) The use of nano-sized Tapioca starch as a natural water-soluble polymer for filtration control in water-based drilling muds. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 34:832–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jia Z (2013) Synthesis and performances of Si-carboxymethyl starch sodium as a filtrate reducer. Asian J Chem 25(14):7971–7975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Manea M (2009) Characterization of a biodegradable polymer used as additive to prepare drilling fluids. Rev Chim Buchar Orig Ed 60(11):1231–1234Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peng B, Peng S, Long B, Miao Y, Guo WY (2010) Properties of high-temperature-resistant drilling fluids incorporating acrylamide/(acrylic acid)/(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) terpolymer and aluminum citrate as filtration control agents. J Vinyl Addit Technol 16(1):84–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cao J, Tan Y, Che Y, Ma Q (2011) Synthesis of copolymer of acrylamide with sodium vinylsulfonate and its thermal stability in solution. J Polym Res 18(2):171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klemme HD (1980) Petroleum basins-classifications and characteristics. J Pet Geol 3(2):187–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Plank JP, Hamberger JV (1988) Field experience with a novel calcium-tolerant fluid-loss additive for drilling muds. Society of Petroleum Engineers, BangkokCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Au P-I, Pillai P, Leong Y-K (2015) Ageing and collapse of bentonite gels—effects of Mg(II), Ca(II) and Ba(II) ions. Appl Clay Sci 114:141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cao J, Meng L, Yang Y, Zhu Y, Wang X, Yao C, Sun M, Zhong H (2017) Novel acrylamide/2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid/4-vinylpyridine terpolymer as an anti-calcium contamination fluid-loss additive for water-based drilling fluids. Energy Fuels 31(11):11963–11970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wu YM, Zhang BQ, Wu T, Zhang CG (2001) Properties of the forpolymer of N-vinylpyrrolidone with itaconic acid, acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid as a fluid-loss reducer for drilling fluid at high temperatures. Colloid Polym Sci 279(9):836–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhao Z, Pu X, Xiao L, Wang G, Su J, He M (2015) Synthesis and properties of high temperature resistant and salt tolerant filtrate reducer N,N-dimethylacrylamide 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propyl dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride N-vinylpyrrolidone quadripolymer. J Polym Eng 35(7):627–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peng B, Tang J, Luo J, Wang P, Ding B, Tam KC (2018) Applications of nanotechnology in oil and gas industry: progress and perspective. Can J Chem Eng 96(1):91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kang Y, She J, Zhang H, You L, Song M (2016) Strengthening shale wellbore with silica nanoparticles drilling fluid. Petroleum 2(2):189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xia X, Guo J, Feng Y, Chen D, Yu Y, Jin J, Liu S (2016) Hydrophobic associated polymer “grafted onto” nanosilica as a multi-functional fluid loss agent for oil well cement under ultrahigh temperature. RSC Adv 6(94):91728–91740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Williams PA, Harrop R, Robb ID (1984) Adsorption of an amphoteric polymer on silica and its effect on dispersion stability. J Colloid Interface Sci 102(2):548–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sensoy T, Chenevert ME, Sharma MM (2009) Minimizing water invasion in shales using nanoparticles. In SPE annual technical conference and exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers, New Orleans, LAGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li L, Sun JS, Xu XG, Ma C, Yang YP, Yuan XB (2012) Study and application of nanomaterials in drilling fluids. Adv Mater Res 535–537:323–328Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sadegh Hassani S, Amrollahi A, Rashidi A, Soleymani M, Rayatdoost S (2016) The effect of nanoparticles on the heat transfer properties of drilling fluids. J Pet Sci Eng 146:183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Taha NM, Lee S (2015) Nano graphene application improving drilling fluids performance. In: International petroleum technology conference, 2015Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abdo J, Haneef MD (2013) Clay nanoparticles modified drilling fluids for drilling of deep hydrocarbon wells. Appl Clay Sci 86:76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baird JC, Walz JY (2007) The effects of added nanoparticles on aqueous kaolinite suspensions: II. Rheological effects. J Colloid Interface Sci 306(2):411–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jain R, Mahto TK, Mahto V (2016) Rheological investigations of water based drilling fluid system developed using synthesized nanocomposite. Korea Aust Rheol J 28(1):55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smith SR, Rafati R, Sharifi Haddad A, Cooper A, Hamidi H (2018) Application of aluminium oxide nanoparticles to enhance rheological and filtration properties of water based muds at HPHT conditions. Colloids Surf A 537:361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mao H, Qiu Z, Shen Z, Huang W, Zhong H, Dai W (2015) Novel hydrophobic associated polymer based nano-silica composite with core–shell structure for intelligent drilling fluid under ultra-high temperature and ultra-high pressure. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 25(1):90–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barry MM, Jung Y, Lee J-K, Phuoc TX, Chyu MK (2015) Fluid filtration and rheological properties of nanoparticle additive and intercalated clay hybrid bentonite drilling fluids. J Pet Sci Eng 127:338–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yang X, Shang Z, Liu H, Cai J, Jiang G (2017) Environmental-friendly salt water mud with nano-SiO2 in horizontal drilling for shale gas. J Pet Sci Eng 156:408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    An Y, Jiang G, Qi Y, Ge Q, Zhang L (2016) Nano-fluid loss agent based on an acrylamide based copolymer “grafted” on a modified silica surface. RSC Adv 6(21):17246–17255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ahmad HM, Kamal MS, Murtaza M, Al-Harthi MA (2017) Improving the drilling fluid properties using nanoparticles and water-soluble polymers. In SPE Kingdom of Saudi Arabia annual technical symposium and exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tien C, Bai R, Ramarao BV (1997) Analysis of cake growth in cake filtration: effect of fine particle retention. AIChE J 43(1):33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yao R, Jiang G, Li W, Deng T, Zhang H (2014) Effect of water-based drilling fluid components on filter cake structure. Powder Technol 262:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering and TechnologyChina University of Geosciences (Beijing)Haidian District, BeijingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Deep Geo Drilling TechnologyMinistry of Land and ResourcesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations