The performance of phosphoric acid in the preparation of activated carbon-containing phosphorus species from rice husk residue
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The performance of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) in the preparation of activated carbon-containing phosphorus species (P-species) using rice husk residues as feedstock was studied. In the activation process, the consequent pretreatments by NaOH and HCl, respectively, remove the silica and ash thoroughly, which led to cracks and pore opening. While H3PO4 acting as activation regent interacted with the phenolic and carbonyl groups of activated carbon, forming P-containing carbonaceous species (such as C–O–P), which further promoted the development of micropore of the activated carbon and then increased the surface area, H3PO4 also acted as catalyst to adjust and control the texture properties and structures of activated carbon. The activated carbon (PC-2.5) prepared at 500 °C for 2 h using H3PO4-treated carbon residue with acid/carbon mass ratio of 2.5 (g/g) achieved the maximum surface area of 1365 m2/g. Interestingly, the P-species formed in the activated carbon exhibited high-efficiency catalytic effects for the treatment of municipal waste landfill leachate to a disposable quality, where the removal rate of pollutant from landfill leachate over 90% and a high removal of TN (84%), COD (82%) and NH4+–N (100%) were obtained.
This work is financially supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2018M631102), Sichuan Science and Technology Program (No. 2018JY0207), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51478448), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (No. 2017423), the Deployment Project of Chinese Academy of Science (KFZD-SW-313) and Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology & Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichun Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KLCAS-2018-5). We would like to thank Yunfei Tian of Analytical & Testing Center of Sichuan University for XPS experiments.
Y.L. carried out the majority of the experiment and wrote the paper. Y.C. and X.S. helped with the analysis of SEM and XRD analysis. Q.C. helped with the treatment of landfill leachate using different carbon samples. D.L. and X.L. supervised the project and revised the paper. All authors have given approval to the final version of the manuscript and contributed to the scientific discussion.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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