Advertisement

The strengthening of woven jute fiber/polylactide biocomposite without loss of ductility using rigid core–soft shell nanoparticles

  • Hailing He
  • Tong Earn Tay
  • Zhenqing Wang
  • Zhiwei Duan
Materials for life sciences
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

Some efforts have been made to strengthen the environment friendly natural fiber-reinforced polylactide composite (NFPC), but common approaches impair its ductility. This paper successfully synthesized the rigid-soft core–shell nanoparticles which are feasible to simultaneously improve the strength and toughness of NFPC. The core–shell structure was molecularly designed to act the nano-silica and poly (butyl acrylate) rubber as rigid inner core and soft outer shell, respectively. Furthermore, the devised active functional groups at the end of core–shell filler also interact with polylactide (PLA) matrix to form strong interface. The effect of core–shell nanoparticle on crystalline, thermal and mechanical properties of NFPC was investigated. The results showed that the core–shell nanofiller can facilitate to form the more complete crystalline grain of PLA matrix and the thermal stability improvement of NFPC. More attractively, the addition of the rigid-soft core–shell nanoparticle enhanced the strength and stiffness of NFPC without sacrificing its elongation at break. Finally, the toughness improvement mechanisms and synergistic effect of core–shell nanoparticles were illustrated via field emission scanning electron microscope. It indicates that the micro-cracks, shear band and fibration of the matrix induced by the core–shell filler are the main causes of toughness improvement.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported financially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472086, 11532013 and 11872157). The author would like to gratefully acknowledge the China Scholarship Council that gives me a support to do research in the National University of Singapore.

References

  1. 1.
    Pickering KL, Efendy MGA, Le TM (2016) A review of recent developments in natural fiber composites and their mechanical performance. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 83:98–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siengchin S (2017) Editorial corner—a personal view potential use of ‘green’ composites in automotive applications. eXPRESS Polym Lett 11:600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mavinkere S, Siengchin S (2018) Natural fibers as perspective materials. KMUTNB Int J Appl Sci Technol 11:233Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Qu P, Gao Y, Wu G, Zhang L (2010) Nanocomposites of poly (lactic acid) reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils. BioResources 5:1811–1823Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bax B, Müssig J (2008) Impact and tensile properties of PLA/Cordenka and PLA/flax composites. Compos Sci Technol 68:1601–1607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pan P, Zhu B, Kai W, Serizawa S, Iji M, Inoue Y (2007) Crystallization behavior and mechanical properties of bio-based green composites based on poly (l-lactide) and kenaf fiber. J Appl Polym Sci 105:1511–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nishino T, Hirao K, Kotera M, Nakamae K, Inagaki H (2003) Kenaf reinforced biodegradable composite. Compos Sci Technol 63:1281–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yu T, Ren J, Li S, Yuan H, Li Y (2010) Effect of fiber surface-treatments on the properties of poly (lactic acid)/ramie composites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 41:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goriparthi BK, Suman KNS, Rao NM (2012) Effect of fiber surface treatments on mechanical and abrasive wear performance of polylactide/jute composites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 43:1800–1808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huda MS, Drzal LT, Mohanty AK, Misra M (2008) Effect of fiber surface-treatments on the properties of laminated biocomposites from poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and kenaf fibers. Compos Sci Technol 68:424–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kobayashi S, Takada K (2013) Processing of unidirectional hemp fiber reinforced composites with micro-braiding technique. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 46:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Plackett D, Andersen TL, Pedersen WB, Nielsen L (2003) Biodegradable composites based on l-polylactide and jute fibres. Compos Sci Technol 63:1287–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kumar R, Yakabu MK, Anandjiwala RD (2010) Effect of montmorillonite clay on flax fabric reinforced poly lactic acid composites with amphiphilic additives. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 41:1620–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thitsartarn W, Fan X, Sun Y, Yeo JCC, Yuan D, He C (2015) Simultaneous enhancement of strength and toughness of epoxy using POSS-Rubber core–shell nanoparticles. Compos Sci Technol 118:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li Q, Zhang L, Zhang Z, Zhou N, Cheng Z, Zhu X (2010) Air-tolerantly surface-initiated AGET ATRP mediated by iron catalyst from silica nanoparticles. J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 48:2006–2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ren Y, Zhou G, Cao P (2016) Preparations and properties of a tunable void with shell thickness SiO2@SiO2 core–shell structures via activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. Solid State Sci 52:154–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhan X, Yan Y, Zhang Q, Chen F (2014) A novel superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite material prepared by surface-initiated AGET ATRP and its anti-icing properties. J Mater Chem A 2:9390–9399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zafar MT, Maiti SN, Ghosh AK (2016) Effect of surface treatment of jute fibers on the interfacial adhesion in poly (lactic acid)/jute fiber biocomposites. Fibers and Polym 17:266–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Du Y, Wu T, Yan N, Kortschot MT, Farnood R (2014) Fabrication and characterization of fully biodegradable natural fiber-reinforced poly (lactic acid) composites. Compos B Eng 56:717–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Masirek R, Kulinski Z, Chionna D, Piorkowska E, Pracella M (2007) Composites of poly (L-lactide) with hemp fibers: morphology and thermal and mechanical properties. J Appl Polym Sci 105:255–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee BH, Kim HS, Lee S, Kim HJ, Dorgan JR (2009) Bio-composites of kenaf fibers in polylactide: role of improved interfacial adhesion in the carding process. Compos Sci Technol 69:2573–2579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sawpan MA, Pickering KL, Fernyhough A (2011) Effect of fiber treatments on interfacial shear strength of hemp fiber reinforced polylactide and unsaturated polyester composites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 42:1189–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang J, Duan Y, Sato H, Tsuji H, Noda I, Yan S, Ozaki Y (2005) Crystal modifications and thermal behavior of poly (l-lactic acid) revealed by infrared spectroscopy. Macromolecules 38:8012–8021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liang JZ, Zhou L, Tang CY, Tsui CP (2013) Crystalline properties of poly (l-lactic acid) composites filled with nanometer calcium carbonate. Compos B Eng 45:1646–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nam JY, Sinha Ray S, Okamoto M (2003) Crystallization behavior and morphology of biodegradable polylactide/layered silicate nanocomposite. Macromolecules 36:7126–7131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dong Y, Ghataura A, Takagi H, Haroosh HJ, Nakagaito AN, Lau KT (2014) Polylactic acid (PLA) biocomposites reinforced with coir fibres: evaluation of mechanical performance and multifunctional properties. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 63:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adeli H, Hussein Sharif Zein S, Huat Tan S, Md Akil H, Latif Ahmad A (2011) Synthesis, characterization and biodegradation of novel poly (l-lactide)/multiwalled carbon nanotube porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Curr Nanosci 7(3):323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kabir MM, Wang H, Lau KT, Cardona F, Aravinthan T (2012) Mechanical properties of chemically-treated hemp fiber reinforced sandwich composites. Compos B Eng 43:159–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Siengchin S, Pohl T, Medina L, Mitschang P (2013) Structure and properties of flax/polylactide/alumina nanocomposites. J Reinf Plast Compos 32:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Qin L, Qiu J, Liu M, Ding S (2011) Mechanical and thermal properties of poly (lactic acid) composites with rice straw fiber modified by poly (butyl acrylate). Chem Eng J 166:772–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Porras A, Maranon A (2012) Development and characterization of a laminate composite material from polylactic acid (PLA) and woven bamboo fabric. Compos B Eng 43:2782–2788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yang H, Li F, Shan C, Han D, Zhang Q, Niu L, Ivaska A (2009) Covalent functionalization of chemically converted graphene sheets via silane and its reinforcement. J Mater Chem 19:4632–4638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li X, Lei B, Lin Z, Huang L, Tan S, Cai X (2014) The utilization of bamboo charcoal enhances wood plastic composites with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Mater Des 53:419–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    He C, Donald AM, Butler MF (1998) In-situ deformation studies of rubber toughened poly (methyl methacrylate): influence of rubber particle concentration and rubber cross-linking density. Macromolecules 31:158–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Johnsen BB, Kinloch AJ, Mohammed RD, Taylor AC, Sprenger S (2007) Toughening mechanisms of nanoparticle-modified epoxy polymers. Polymer 48:530–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yin B, Li LP, Zhou Y, Gong L, Yang MB, Xie BH (2013) Largely improved impact toughness of PA6/EPDM-g-MA/HDPE ternary blends: the role of core–shell particles formed in melt processing on preventing micro-crack propagation. Polymer 54:1938–1947CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Aerospace and Civil EngineeringHarbin Engineering UniversityHarbinChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations