Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 54, Issue 7, pp 5311–5320 | Cite as

Sensing properties of amperometric ppb-level NO2 sensor based on sodium ion conductor with sensing electrodes comprising different WO3 nanostructures

  • Xiaohong Zheng
  • Cheng Zhang
  • Jinfeng Xia
  • Guohong Zhou
  • Danyu Jiang
  • Shiwei Wang
  • Xin Li
  • Yibo Shen
  • Mengting Dai
  • Bing Wang
  • Qiang LiEmail author
Chemical routes to materials


In this study, amperometric NO2 sensors based on Na+ superionic conductor electrolyte and sensing electrodes with different WO3 nanostructures (WO3 nanoparticles, WO3 nanosheets, and mesoporous WO3) have been fabricated and compared. Sensing properties, such as optimum test temperature, sensitivity, repeatability, and selectivity have been determined and compared. Compared with the literatures, the sensors, prepared using three different WO3 nanostructures, all showed improved sensing properties to 100–1000 ppb NO2 at low work temperatures of 100–150 °C. Among above sensors, the sensor equipped with mesoporous WO3 sensing electrode exhibited the best amperometric sensitivity characteristics and the minimum test temperature. The relationship between the sensing properties and the mesoporous structure has also been discussed. What’s more, the sensor can test ppb-level NO2 in low temperature, which makes it possible to monitor low concentrations of NO2 in the air.



Yttria-stabilized zirconia


Na+ superionic conductor


Sensing electrode


Reference electrode


X-ray diffraction


Transmission electron microscopy


Brunauer, Emmett and Teller


Atomic Force Microscope


Dynamic light scattering particle size analysis



This work is supported by Foundation of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 18090503600) and Research project of Shanghai university of applied technology (XTCX2017-4).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

This manuscript has not been published or presented elsewhere in part or in entirety and is not under consideration by another journal. We have read and understood your journal’s policies, and we believe that neither the manuscript nor the study violates any of these. There are no conflict of interest to declare.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Molecular EngineeringEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Shanghai University of Applied TechnologyShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Shanghai Institute of CeramicsChinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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