Poly(NIPAAm-co-Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ) hydrogels crosslinked by double-bond end-capped Pluronic F127: preparation, properties and coupling with the BZ reaction

  • 501 Accesses

  • 3 Citations


Topological network design is an effective way to obtain new functionalities and regulate the properties of stimuli responsive hydrogels. In this work, poly(NIPAAm-co-Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ) hydrogels (NIPAAm: N-isopropylacrylamide, Ru(bpy) 3 2+ : Ruthenium bipyridine complex monomer) crosslinked by amphiphilic triblock copolymers were designed and constructed by a photo-induced gelation method, utilizing double-bond end-capped Pluronic F127 (F127DA) as the crosslinking agent, NIPAAm and Ru(bpy) 3 2+ as the monomers, α-ketoglutaric acid as the photoinitiator and H2O as the solvent. The resulting F127DA crosslinked hydrogels exhibit unique swelling behaviors, mechanical properties, fluorescent behaviors and thermosensitive properties and can be coupled with the BZ reaction. The present example may enrich the family of metal-containing polymer materials and provide clues to develop other functional hydrogels by designing topologically crosslinked network.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Scheme 1
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5


  1. 1

    Koetting MC, Peters JT, Steichen SD, Peppas NA (2015) Stimulus-responsive hydrogels: theory, modern advances, and applications. Mater Sci Eng R Rep 93:1–49

  2. 2

    Raeburn J, Zamith Cardoso A, Adams DJ (2013) The importance of the self-assembly process to control mechanical properties of low molecular weight hydrogels. Chem Soc Rev 42:5143–5156

  3. 3

    Kim J, Yoon J, Hayward RC (2010) Dynamic display of biomolecular patterns through an elastic creasing instability of stimuli-responsive hydrogels. Nat Mater 9:159–164

  4. 4

    Razza N, Blanchet B, Lamberti A, Pirri FC, Tulliani JM, Bozano LD, Sangermano M (2017) UV-printable and flexible humidity sensors based on conducting/insulating semi-interpenetrated polymer networks. Macromol Mater Eng 10:1700161

  5. 5

    Liu YJ, Cao WT, Ma MG, Wan P (2017) Ultrasensitive wearable soft strain sensors of conductive, self-healing, and elastic hydrogels with synergistic “soft and hard” hybrid networks. ACS Appl Mater Inter 9:25559–25570

  6. 6

    Liu S, Li L (2017) Ultra-stretchable and self-healing double network hydrogel for 3D printing and strain sensor. ACS Appl Mater Inter 9:26429–26437

  7. 7

    Gao Y, Song JF, Li SM, Elowsky C, Zhou Y, Ducharme S, Chen YM, Zhou Q, Tan L (2016) Hydrogel microphones for stealthy underwater listening. Nat Commun.

  8. 8

    Trung TQ, Lee N (2017) Recent progress on stretchable electronic devices with intrinsically stretchable components. Adv Mater 29:1603167

  9. 9

    Chen H, Yang F, Chen Q, Zheng J (2017) A novel design of multi-mechanoresponsive and mechanically strong hydrogels. Adv Mater 21:1606900

  10. 10

    Stuart MA, Huck WT, Genzer J, Müller M, Ober C, Stamm M, Sukhorukov GB, Szleifer I, Tsukruk VV, Urban M (2010) Emerging applications of stimuli-responsive polymer materials. Nat Mater 9:101–113

  11. 11

    Beebe DJ, Moore JS, Bauer JM, Yu Q, Liu RH, Devadoss C, Jo BH (2000) Functional hydrogel structures for autonomous flow control inside microfluidic channels. Nature 404:588–590

  12. 12

    Yashin VV, Kuksenok O, Balazs AC (2010) Modeling autonomously oscillating chemo-responsive gels. Prog Polym Sci 35:155–173

  13. 13

    Zhou H, Ding X, Zheng Z, Peng Y (2013) Self-regulated intelligent systems: where adaptive entities meet chemical oscillators. Soft Matter 9:4956–4968

  14. 14

    Yoshida R (2010) Self-oscillating gels driven by the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction as novel smart materials. Adv Mater 22:3463–3483

  15. 15

    Kuksenok O, Dayal P, Bhattacharya A, Yashin VV, Deb D, Chen IC, Van Vliet KJ, Balazs AC (2013) Chemo-responsive, self-oscillating gels that undergo biomimetic communication. Chem Soc Rev 42:7257–7277

  16. 16

    Zhou HW, Zheng ZH, Wang QG, Xu GH, Li J, Ding XB (2015) A modular approach to self-oscillating polymer systems driven by the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction. RSC Adv 5:13555–13569

  17. 17

    Yoshida R, Ueki T (2014) Evolution of self-oscillating polymer gels as autonomous polymer systems. NPG Asia Mater.

  18. 18

    Yoshida R, Takahashi T, Yamaguchi T, Ichijo H (1996) Self-oscillating gel. J Am Chem Soc 118:5134–5135

  19. 19

    Zhou HW, Ding XB (2016) Smart polymer materials driven by the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction: topological structures and biomimetic functions. Prog Chem 28:111–120

  20. 20

    Ueki T, Yoshida R (2014) Recent aspects of self-oscillating polymeric materials: designing self-oscillating polymers coupled with supramolecular chemistry and ionic liquid science. Phys Chem Chem Phys 16:10388–10397

  21. 21

    Suzuki D, Kobayashi T, Yoshida R, Hirai T (2012) Soft actuators of organized self-oscillating microgels. Soft Matter 8:11447–11449

  22. 22

    Mitsunaga R, Okeyoshi K, Yoshida R (2013) Design of a comb-type self-oscillating gel. Chem Commun 49:4935–4937

  23. 23

    Zhang Y, Zhou N, Akella S, Kuang Y, Kim D, Schwartz A, Bezpalko M, Foxman BM, Fraden S, Epstein IR, Xu DB (2013) Active cross-linkers that lead to active gels. Angew Chem Int Ed 52:11494–11498

  24. 24

    Zhou HW, Wang YR, Zheng ZH, Ding XB, Peng YX (2014) Periodic auto-active gels with topologically “polyrotaxane-interlocked’’ structures. Chem Commun 50:6372–6374

  25. 25

    Zhou H, Jin X, Yan B, Li X, Yang W, Ma A, Zhang X, Li P, Ding X, Chen W (2017) Mechanically robust, tough, and self-recoverable hydrogels with molecularly engineered fully flexible crosslinking structure. Macromol Mater Eng 9:1700085

  26. 26

    Lodge TP, Ueki T (2016) Mechanically tunable, readily processable ion gels by self-assembly of block copolymers in ionic liquids. Acc Chem Res 49:2107–2114

  27. 27

    Zhang Y, Zhou N, Li N, Sun MG, Kim D, Fraden S, Epstein IR, Xu B (2014) Giant volume change of active gels under continuous flow. J Am Chem Soc 136:7341–7347

  28. 28

    Sun YN, Gao GR, Du GL, Cheng YJ, Fu J (2014) Super tough, ultrastretchable, and thermoresponsive hydrogels with functionalized triblock copolymer micelles as macro-cross-linkers. ACS Macro Lett 3:496–500

  29. 29

    Zhou HW, Yang Y, Xu GH, Chen WX, Zhang WZ, Wang QG, Zheng ZH, Ding XB (2015) Ru(II)(Tpy)2-functionalized hydrogels: synthesis, reversible responsiveness, and coupling with the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction. J Polym Sci Pol Chem 53:2214–2222

  30. 30

    Zhou H, Zheng Z, Wang Q, Xu G, Li J, Ding X (2015) A modular approach to self-oscillating polymer systems driven by the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction. RSC Adv 5:13555–13569

  31. 31

    Manners I (2001) Putting metals into polymers. Science 294:1664–1666

  32. 32

    Li H, Yang P, Pageni P, Tang CB (2017) Recent advances in metal-containing polymer hydrogels. Macromol Rapid Commun 14:1700109

  33. 33

    Gao J, Tang C, Smith AM, Miller AF, Saiani A (2017) Controlling self-assembling peptide hydrogel properties through network topology. Biomacromol 18:826–834

  34. 34

    Shen W, Zhang K, Kornfield JA, Tirrell DA (2006) Tuning the erosion rate of artificial protein hydrogels through control of network topology. Nat Mater 5:153–158

  35. 35

    Okumura Y, Ito K (2001) The polyrotaxane gel: a topological gel by figure-of-eight cross-links. Adv Mater 13:485–487

Download references


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51603164, 51373175, 61604120), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Nos. 2016JQ5036, No. 2017ZDJC-22), the Young Talent Fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi, China (20170706), and the Start-up Funding for Scientific Research in Xi’an Technological University (Nos. 0853-302020350).

Author information

Correspondence to Hongwei Zhou or Xilang Jin.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 2 (AVI 2118 kb)

Supplementary material 1 (AVI 5545 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (AVI 2118 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhou, H., Yan, B., Li, J. et al. Poly(NIPAAm-co-Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ) hydrogels crosslinked by double-bond end-capped Pluronic F127: preparation, properties and coupling with the BZ reaction. J Mater Sci 53, 5467–5476 (2018).

Download citation