Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 46, Issue 24, pp 7760–7769 | Cite as

Impact of synthesis conditions on meso- and macropore structures of resorcinol–formaldehyde xerogels

  • Ahmed Awadallah-F
  • Ahmed M. Elkhatat
  • Shaheen A. Al-MuhtasebEmail author


Xerogels were prepared by the sol–gel polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde at different conditions. The effects of different synthesis factors (namely, resorcinol-to-formaldehyde ratio, resorcinol-to-water ratio, resorcinol-to-catalyst ratio, and initial solution pH) on the surface areas, pore volumes, pore size distributions, and adsorption capacity of liquid nitrogen were studied. Factorial design was also used to investigate the relative significance of these factors on the resulting xerogels properties, and the possible interactions between them. The mean effects of the most significant factors and factor interactions on determining the pore structures and adsorption capacities were evaluated. The synthesized xerogels were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area analyzer. The results showed that surface areas, pore size distributions, and nitrogen adsorption capacity are dependent completely on the recipes used to prepare the xerogels. Pore structure results put xerogel samples as candidates for adsorption technology, ultra-filtration, and nano-filtration fields based on pore sizes and pore volume scales.


Adsorption Capacity Pore Volume Resorcinol Total Surface Area Total Pore Volume 



This publication was made possible by the support of an NPRP grant from the QNRF. The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Awadallah-F
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ahmed M. Elkhatat
    • 1
  • Shaheen A. Al-Muhtaseb
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringQatar UniversityDohaQatar
  2. 2.National Center for Radiation Research and TechnologyNasr City, CairoEgypt

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