Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 46, Issue 13, pp 4598–4605 | Cite as

Preparation and structural investigation of nanostructured oxide dispersed strengthened steels

  • Cs. BalázsiEmail author
  • F. Gillemot
  • M. Horváth
  • F. Wéber
  • K. Balázsi
  • F. Cinar Sahin
  • Y. Onüralp
  • Á. Horváth


Although capability of steels has been improved in the past by thermomechanical treatment, utilization of powder metallurgy provides more controlled microstructure, a homogeneous dispersion of nanosized oxide particles in the metal matrix and tailored properties in terms of strength and radiation resistance. This article is summarizing recent results on preparation, structural, and mechanical investigation of oxide dispersed strengthened steel (ODS). Two commercial steel powders, austenitic 17Cr12Ni2.5Mo2.3Si0.1C and martensitic Fe16Cr2Ni0.2C powders have been used as starting materials. Nanosized yttria dispersed martensitic and austenitic sintered steel samples have been realized by powder metallurgical methods. An efficient dispersion of nano-oxides in ODS steels was achieved by employing high efficient attrition milling. A combined wet and dry milling process of fine ceramic and steel particles is proposed. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was applied to realize nanostructured steel compacts. Grains with 100 nm mean size have been observed by SEM in sintered austenitic ODS. In comparison, the sintered martensitic dry milled and martensitic dry and combined milled ODS microstructure consisted of grain size with 100–300 nm in each case. A brittle behavior is shown in all of the cases. The martensitic ODS is two times harder than the austenitic ODS. The bending strength high as 1806.7 MPa was found for the martensitic ODS, whereas 1210.8 MPa was determined for the austenitic ODS. The combined milling assured higher strength and hardness compared to dry milling.


Milling Spark Plasma Sinter Yttrium Oxide Steel Powder Attrition Milling 



This study was supported by EFDA, FEMAS and TAMOP 4.2.2. - 08/1-2008-0016. Thanks for XRD and SEM measurements to Dr. Z.E. Horváth, Dr. A.L. Tóth and L. Illés.


  1. 1.
    Ukai S, Nishida T, Okada H, Okuda T, Fujiwara M, Asabe K (1997) J Nucl Sci Technol 34:256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ukai S, Yoshitake T, Mizuta S, Matsudaira Y, Hagi S, Kobayashi T (1999) J Nucl Sci Technol 36:710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alamo A, Decours J, Pigoury M, Foucher C (1990) Structural applications of mechanical alloying. ASM International, Materials ParkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alamo A, Regle H, Pons G, Bechade LL (1992) Mater Sci Forum 88–90:183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mukhopadhyay DK, Froes FH, Gelles DS (1998) J Nucl Mater 258–263:1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miller MK, Kenik EA, Russell KF, Heatherly L, Hoelzer DT, Maziasz PJ (2003) Mater Sci Eng A 353:140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ukai S, Harada M, Okada H, Inoue M, Nomura S, Shikakura S, Asabe K, Nishida T, Fujiwara M (1993) J Nucl Mater 204:65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ukai S, Harada M, Okada H, Inoue M, Nomura S, Shikakura S, Nishida T, Fujiwara M, Asabe K (1993) J Nucl Mater 204:74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fischer JL (1978) US Patent 4,075,010, 21 Feb 1978Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yun T, Guangzu L, Bingquan S (2000) 6th Japan–China symposium on materials for advance energy systems and fission and fusion engineering, RIAM, Kyushu University, 4–6 Dec 2000Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kimura A, Sawai T, Shiba K, Hishinuma A, Jitsukawa S, Ukai S, Kohyama A (2003) Nucl Fusion 43:1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kimura A, Cho HS, Lee JS, Kasada R, Ukai S, Fujiwara M (2004) In: Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants, p 2070Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kimura A (2005) Mater Trans 46:394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huet JJ (1967) Powder Metall 10:208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huet JJ, Leroy V (1974) Nucl Technol 24:216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borgioli F, Galvanetto E, Bacci T et al (2002) Surf Coat Technol 149:192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sandberg O, Jönson L (2003) Adv Mater Process 12:37Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lindskog P (2004) Powder Metall 47:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koszor O, Horváth A, Weber F, Balázsi K, Gillemot F, Horvath M, Fényi B, Balázsi C (2009) Key Eng Mater 409:237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sakasegawa H et al (2008) J Alloys Compd 452:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Okuda T, Nomura S et al. (1989) Proceedings on Symposium. Sponsored by the TMS Powder Metallurgy Committee, Indiana, p 195Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Syed AA, Denoirjean A, Denoirjean P, Labbe JC, Fauchais P (2004) In: Thermal Spray 2004, Advances in Technology and Application, Proceedings of the international thermal spray conference, Osaka, Japan, pp 100–105, 10–12 May 2004Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Palm M, Preuhs J, Sauthoff G, Mater J (2003) Process Technol 136:114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Groza JR, Ribaud SH, Yamazaki K (1992) J Mater Res 7:2643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Groza JR, Curtis JD, Kramer M (2000) J Am Ceram Soc 83:1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gang JL, Grosdidier T, Bozzolo N, Launois S (2007) Intermetallics 15(2):108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang L, Ukai S, Hoshino T, Hayashi S, Qu X (2009) Acta Mater 57/12:3671CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cs. Balázsi
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. Gillemot
    • 2
  • M. Horváth
    • 2
  • F. Wéber
    • 1
  • K. Balázsi
    • 3
  • F. Cinar Sahin
    • 4
  • Y. Onüralp
    • 4
  • Á. Horváth
    • 2
  1. 1.Ceramics and Nanocomposites DepartmentResearch Institute for Technical Physics and Materials ScienceBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Materials DepartmentKFKI Atomic Energy Research InstituteBudapestHungary
  3. 3.Thin Film Physics DepartmentResearch Institute for Technical Physics and Materials ScienceBudapestHungary
  4. 4.Metallurgical and Materials Engineering DepartmentIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations