Transformation of microporous titanium glycolate nanorods into mesoporous anatase titania nanorods by hot water treatment
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High surface area titanium glycolate microporous multi-faceted nanorods were synthesized from the reaction of titanium alkoxides (Ti(OEt)4, Ti(OiPr)4, or Ti(OnBu)4) with ethylene glycol, using a sol–gel reflux method. The specific surface area of the as-synthesized titanium glycolate nanorods obtained from Ti(OEt)4 is ~480 m2/g. A hot water treatment at 90 °C for 1 h transformed the titanium glycolate microporous nanorods into mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanorods. The shape of the nanorods was conserved after hot water treatment and the microporous to mesoporous transformation took place without significant change in the surface area (477 m2/g). Micro Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. As a demonstration of potential applications, the thus formed mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanorods were tested for their photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of crystal violet, and a photodegradation mechanism is proposed.
KeywordsTiO2 Crystal Violet TiO2 Nanorods Titanium Glycolate Titania Nanofibers
The financial support of the Research Assistantships Initiative of New Brunswick Innovation Fund (NBIF), the Atlantic Innovation Fund (AIF–Round II), and National Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Dr. Louise Weaver (Microscopy Microanalysis Facility, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, Canada) for the TEM measurements, and Zoulika Hadj—Sadok (Laboratoire de Chimie des matériaux inorganiques—FUNDP, Namur, Belgique) for BET and XRD measurements. We are also thankful to Dr. Ulrike Werner-Zwanziger, Senior NMR Spectroscopist (Atlantic Magnetic Resonance Center, Department of chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax) for the NMR spectra.
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