Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 43, Issue 21, pp 6938–6943 | Cite as

On the influence of carbon on secondary dendrite arm spacing in steel

  • Robert Pierer
  • Christian Bernhard
Article

Abstract

Solidification-related phenomena and the properties of the final product are strongly influenced by the developing dendritic microstructure, which is defined e.g. by the secondary dendrite arm spacing. In the past, different experimental set-ups were applied and subsequently the secondary dendrite arm spacing of certain steel grades was measured. However, it is difficult to compare the proposed relations based on either the local solidification time or the cooling rate, and they also vary over a wide range. Therefore, the present study systematically investigates the effect of carbon on the secondary dendrite arm spacing using in situ solidification experiments with accurately defined solidification conditions. The parameter K in the empirical equation \(\lambda_2=K\cdot t_{\rm f}^{1/3}\) was determined as a function of carbon, using an iterative procedure to calculate the local solidification time and the measured secondary dendrite arm spacings. Furthermore, these results were discussed and compared with theoretical models from the literature.

Keywords

Solid Fraction Mushy Zone Test Body Lever Rule Increase Carbon Content 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge Martina Hanel and Juergen Reiter for their support as well as the funding of this work by the Austrian Ministry for Economy and Labour in the frame of the Christian Doppler Laboratories.

References

  1. 1.
    Kirkwood DH (1985) Mater Sci Eng 73:L1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feurer U, Wunderlin R (1977) Deutsche Gesellschaft f. MetallkundeGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mortensen A (1991) Metall Mater Trans 22A:569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Voorhees PW (1990) Metall Mater Trans 21A:27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salas GB, Ramrez JV, Noguez MEA, Robert TN (1995) Scripta Metall Mater 32:295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Melo MLNM, Rizzo EMS, Santos RG (2005) J Mater Sci 40:1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rappaz M, Boettinger WJ (1999) Acta Mater 47:3205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Han Q, Hu H, Zhong X (1997) Metall Mater Trans 28B:1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang RJ, He Z, Wang XY, Jie WQ (2004) J Mater Sci 43:2072Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    El-Bealy M, Thomas BG (1996) Metall Mater Trans 27B:689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miettinen J (1999) Report TKK-MK-78, Helsinki University of Technology Publications in Materials Science and Metallurgy, TKK, EspooGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Won YM, Thomas BG (2001) Metall Mater Trans 32A:1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cabrera-Marrero JM, Carreno-Galindo V, Morales RD, Chavez-Alcala F (1998) ISIJ Int 38:812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reiter J, Bernhard C, Presslinger H (2007) Mater Charact 59:737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang J, Singer RF (2004) Metall Mater Trans 35A:939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Michelic S (2004) Bacc. Thesis, University of LeobenGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miettinen J (1992) Metall Mater Trans 23A:1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ueshima Y, Mizoguchi S, Matsumiya T, Kajioka H (1986) Metall Mater Trans 17B:845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weisgerber B, Hecht M, Harste K (1999) Steel Res 70:403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cornelissen MCM (1986) Ironmak Steelmak 13:204Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miettinen J (2000) Metall Mater Trans 31B:365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kurz W, Fisher DJ (1998) Fundamentals of solidification. Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, Germany, UK, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MetallurgyCD Laboratory for Metallurgical Fundamentals of Continuous Casting ProcessesLeobenAustria

Personalised recommendations