Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 43, Issue 21, pp 6938–6943 | Cite as

On the influence of carbon on secondary dendrite arm spacing in steel

  • Robert PiererEmail author
  • Christian Bernhard


Solidification-related phenomena and the properties of the final product are strongly influenced by the developing dendritic microstructure, which is defined e.g. by the secondary dendrite arm spacing. In the past, different experimental set-ups were applied and subsequently the secondary dendrite arm spacing of certain steel grades was measured. However, it is difficult to compare the proposed relations based on either the local solidification time or the cooling rate, and they also vary over a wide range. Therefore, the present study systematically investigates the effect of carbon on the secondary dendrite arm spacing using in situ solidification experiments with accurately defined solidification conditions. The parameter K in the empirical equation \(\lambda_2=K\cdot t_{\rm f}^{1/3}\) was determined as a function of carbon, using an iterative procedure to calculate the local solidification time and the measured secondary dendrite arm spacings. Furthermore, these results were discussed and compared with theoretical models from the literature.


Solid Fraction Mushy Zone Test Body Lever Rule Increase Carbon Content 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Martina Hanel and Juergen Reiter for their support as well as the funding of this work by the Austrian Ministry for Economy and Labour in the frame of the Christian Doppler Laboratories.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MetallurgyCD Laboratory for Metallurgical Fundamentals of Continuous Casting ProcessesLeobenAustria

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