Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 43, Issue 18, pp 6301–6323 | Cite as

Development and verification of a meso-scale based dynamic material model for plain-woven single-ply ballistic fabric

  • M. GrujicicEmail author
  • W. C. Bell
  • T. He
  • B. A. Cheeseman


A meso-scale unit-cell based continuum material constitutive model has been developed for plain-woven single-ply ballistic fabric materials. This model, due to its computational efficiency, is suitable for use in computational analyses of the ballistic-protection performance of multi-layer body-armor vests. The model utilizes the continuum-level in-plane and out-of-plane deformation-state of the material, an energy minimization procedure and a simple account of yarn slip to update the structure/architecture of the fabric unit cell. Forces and moments developed within the structural components of the unit cell are then used to compute the continuum-level stress state at the material points associated with the unit cell in question. The model is implemented in a user-material subroutine suitable for use within commercial finite-element programs. To validate the model, a series of transient non-linear dynamic analyses of the impact of a square-shaped fabric patch with a spherical projectile is carried out and the computed results compared with their counterparts obtained using a more traditional finite-element approach within which yarns and yarn weaving are modeled explicitly. The results obtained show that the material model provides a reasonably good description for the fabric deformation and fracture behavior under a variety of boundary conditions applied to fabric edges and under varying fictional conditions present at the yarn/yarn and projectile/fabric interfaces. In addition, the overall ballistic energy absorption capacity of the fabric as well as its yarn-strain energy, yarn-kinetic energy, and frictional sliding contributions are predicted with reasonable accuracy by the proposed material model for fabric.


Crossover Point Weft Yarn Frictional Condition Truss Member Yarn Tension 



The material presented in this article is based on work supported by the U.S. Army/Clemson University Cooperative Agreements W911NF-04-2-0024 and W911NF-06-2-0042. The authors are indebted to Dr. Fred Stanton for the support and a continuing interest in the present work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Grujicic
    • 1
    Email author
  • W. C. Bell
    • 1
  • T. He
    • 1
  • B. A. Cheeseman
    • 2
  1. 1.International Center for Automotive Research CU-ICAR, Department of Mechanical EngineeringClemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  2. 2.Army Research Laboratory—Survivability Materials BranchAberdeen, Proving GroundUSA

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