Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 1532–1538 | Cite as

Incorporation of zirconia particles into coatings formed on magnesium by plasma electrolytic oxidation

  • R. Arrabal
  • E. Matykina
  • P. SkeldonEmail author
  • G. E. Thompson


The incorporation of particles of monoclinic zirconia into coatings formed on magnesium by plasma electrolytic oxidation has been examined in order to investigate the mechanism of coating formation. The coatings, developed under DC conditions in alkaline silicate and phosphate electrolytes, comprised two main layers and contained MgO, Mg2SiO4, and Mg3(PO4)2 phases. Zirconia particles were incorporated preferentially into the inner layer regions and at the coating surface. Zirconium was also redistributed in the outer layer coating material, sometimes resulting in a modified microstructure. Due to local heating at the microdischarge sites, particles underwent transformation from monoclinic to tetragonal zirconia, although monoclinic zirconia was also present in the final coating. Mg2Zr5O12 was also formed in the coating produced in phosphate electrolyte. The findings suggest that the outer coating material forms at the inner/outer coating interface region and the coating surface, with transport of particles to the former region through short-circuit paths in the outer layer.


Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Tetragonal Zirconia Zirconia Particle Barrier Film Monoclinic Zirconia 



The authors are grateful to the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (U.K.) for support of this work and the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science for funding a grant for RA (EX2006-1371).


  1. 1.
    Nykyforchyn HM, Klapkiv MD, Posuvailo VM (1998) Surf Coat Technol 100–101:219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Matykina E, Monfort F, Berkani A, Skeldon P, Thompson GE, Chapon P (2006) Philos Mag 86:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kuhn A (2003) Met Finish 101:44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blawert C, Dietzel W, Ghali E, Song G (2006) Adv Eng Mater 8:511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Monfort F, Berkani A, Matykina E, Skeldon P, Thompson GE, Habazaki H, Shimizu K (2007) Corros Sci 49:672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nie X, Meletis EJ, Jiang JC, Leyland A, Yerokhin AL, Matthews A (2002) Surf Coat Technol 149:245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Belevantsev VI, Terleeva OP, Markov GA, Shulepko EK, Slonova AI, Utkin VV (1998) Prot Met 34:469Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Monfort F, Berkani A, Matykina E, Skeldon P, Thompson GE, Habazaki H, Shimizu K (2005) J Electrochem Soc 152:C382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Matykina E, Doucet G, Monfort F, Berkani A, Skeldon P, Thompson GE (2006) Electrochim Acta 51:4709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arrabal R, Matykina E, Skeldon P, Thompson GE, Pardo A (2007) J Electrochem Soc (in press)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saifullin RS (1992) Physical chemistry of inorganic polymeric and composite materials. Ellis Horwood, New York, p 238Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bakovets VV, Polyakov OV, Dolgovesova IP (1991) Plasma electrolytic anode treatment of metals (in Russian), Nauka, NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jin F, Chu PK, Tong H, Zhao J (2006) Appl Surf Sci 253:863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Butyagin P, Khokhryakov Y, Mamaev A (2003) Mater Lett 57:1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liang J, Hu L, Hao J (2007) Electrochim Acta 52:4836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fukumasa O, Tagashira R, Tachino K, Mukunoki H (2003) Surf Coat Technol 169–170:579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wachtman JB, Haber RA (1993) Ceramic films and coatings. William Andrew Publishing/Noyes, New Jersey, p 143Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hannink RH (1983) J Mater Sci 18:457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xie L, Ma X, Jordan EH, Padture NP, Xiao DT, Gell M (2004) J Mater Sci 39:1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grain CF (1967) J Am Ceram Soc 50:288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Khaselev O, Yahalom J (1998) Corros Sci 40:1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shimizu K, Thompson GE, Wood GC (1982) Thin Solid Films 92:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yerokhin AL, Shatrov A, Samsonov V, Shashkov P, Pilkington A, Leyland A, Matthews A (2005) Surf Coat Technol 199:150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu Z, Spargo AE (2001) Philos Mag A 81:625CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Arrabal
    • 1
  • E. Matykina
    • 1
  • P. Skeldon
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. E. Thompson
    • 1
  1. 1.Corrosion and Protection CentreSchool of Materials, The University of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations