Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 10, pp 3557–3563 | Cite as

Synthesis of monophasic Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 solid solution by microwave-induced combustion method

  • Benjaram M. ReddyEmail author
  • Gunugunuri K. Reddy
  • Ataullah Khan
  • Ibram Ganesh


Nanocrystalline monophasic Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 solid solution (1:1 molar ratio) has been synthesized by microwave-induced combustion method in a modified domestic microwave oven (2.45 GHz, 700 W) in approximately 40 min from cerium nitrate and zirconium nitrate precursors using urea as ignition fuel. For the purpose of better comparison, a CexZr1 − xO2 solid solution (1:1 molar ratio) was also synthesized by a conventional co-precipitation method from nitrate precursors and subjected to different calcination temperatures. The synthesized powders of both methods were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and BET surface area techniques. Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurements were performed to understand the usefulness of these materials for various applications. The characterization results reveal that the sample obtained by microwave-induced combustion-synthesis route exhibits homogeneous monophasic Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 solid solution whereas the co-precipitated sample displays compositional heterogeneity. The OSC measurements reveal that the materials synthesized by both methods exhibit comparable oxygen vacancy content (δ).


Solid Solution CeO2 Calcination Temperature Oxygen Storage Capacity Oxygen Vacancy Concentration 



G.K.R. thanks University Grants Commission, New Delhi for the award of Junior Research Fellowship. Financial assistance received from Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi under SERC Scheme (SR/S1/PC-31/2004).


  1. 1.
    Di Monte R, Kaspar J (2005) J Mater Chem 15:633 and references thereinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Trovarelli A (2002) In: Hutchings GJ (ed) Catalysis by ceria and related materials, catalytic science series, vol 2. Imperial College Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernal S, Kasper J, Trovarelli A (1999) Catal Today 50:173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bocanegra-Bernal MH, De La Torre SD (2002) J Mater Sci 37:4947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steele BCH (1999) Nature 400:619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jurado JR (2001) J Mater Sci 36:1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sergent N, Lamonier JF, Aboukais A (2000) Chem Mater 12:3830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bensalem A, Verduraz FB, Delamar M, Bugli G (1995) Appl Catal A: Gen 121:81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Adachi G, Imanaka N (1998) Chem Rev 98:1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Overbury SH, Huntley DR, Mullins DR, Glavee GN (1998) Catal Lett 51:133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Terrible D, Trovarelli A, Llorca J, De Leitenburg C, Dolcetti G (1998) J Catal 178:299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Garcia MF, Arias AM, Jues AI, Belver C, Hungrfa AB, Conesa JC, Soria J (2000) J Catal 194:385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hirano M, Kato E (1996) J Ceram Soc Jpn 104:958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yashia M, Arashi H, Kakihana M, Yoshimura M (1994) J Am Ceram Soc 77:1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Leitenburg C, Trovarelli A, Zamar F, Maschio S, Dolcetti G, Llorca J (1995) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 2181Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mani TV, Varma HK, Damodaran AD, Warrier KGK (1993) Ceram Int 19:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Izu N, Murayama N, Shin W, Matsubara I, Kanzaki S (2004) Japanese J Appl Phys Part 1 43:6920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bui W, Choy KL, Stelzer NHJ, Scoonman J (1999) J Solid State Ionics 116:225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yoldas BE (1993) J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 1:65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fornasiero P, Di Monte R, Rao GR, Kaspar J, Meriani S, Trovarelli A, Graziani M (1995) J Catal 151:168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sinev MY, Graham GW, Haach LP, Shelef M (1996) J Mater Res 11:1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mingos DMP, Baghurst DR (1991) Chem Soc Rev 20:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fu Y-P, Lin C-H (2003) J Alloys Compds 354:232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ganesh I, Johnson R, Mahajan YR, Madhavendra SS, Reddy BM (2005) Ceram Inter 31:67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sutton WH (1989) Am Ceram Soc Bull 68:376Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kiminami RHGA, Morelli MR, Folz DC, Clark DE (2000) Bull Am Ceram Soc 79:63Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Clark DE, Amad I, Dalton RC (1991) Mat Sci Eng A 144:91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Clark DE, Sutton WH (1996) Ann Rev Mat Sci 26:299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cullity BD (1978) Elements of XRD, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ozawa M, Loong CK (1999) Catal Today 50:329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Logan AD, Shelef M (1994) J Mater Res 9:468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reddy BM, Khan A, Lakshmanan P, Aouine M, Loridant S, Volta JC (2005) J Phys Chem B 109:3355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Merzanov AG (1993) Int J Self-Propagat High Temp Synth 2:113Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Patil KC, Aruna ST, Ekambaram S (1997) J Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 2:158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ganesh I, Johnson R, Mahajan YR, Khan A, Madhavendra SS, Reddy BM (2004) J Mater Res 19:1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dean JA (ed) (1979) Lange’s handbook of chemistry 12th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lide DR (ed) (1993) CRC hand book of chemistry and physics, 73rd edn. CRC Press, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rao KJ, Ramesh PD (1995) Bull Mater Sci 18:447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Reddy BM, Khan A, Lakshmanan P, Loridant S, Cartes CL, Rojas TC, Fernandez A (2005) J Phys Chem B 109:13545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Reddy BM, Khan A (2005) Catal Surveys Asia 9:155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kenevey K, Valdivieso F, Soustelle M, Pijolat M (2001) Appl Catal B: Environ 29:93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Reddy BM, Khan A, Yamada Y, Kobayashi T, Loridant S, Volta JC (2003) Langmuir 19:3025CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjaram M. Reddy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gunugunuri K. Reddy
    • 1
  • Ataullah Khan
    • 1
  • Ibram Ganesh
    • 2
  1. 1.Inorganic and Physical Chemistry DivisionIndian Institute of Chemical TechnologyHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Silicon CarbideInternational Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI)HyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations