Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 16, pp 6590–6599 | Cite as

Blending properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) and nylon 6-clay nanocomposite blends

  • Jen-Taut YehEmail author
  • Peng Xu
  • Fang-Chang Tsai


An investigation of the blending, rheological and tensile properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and nylon 6 clay (NYC) nanocomposite blends was conducted. The characteristics of melting endotherm, X-ray diffraction patterns of α form PVA crystals and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups originally associated with the PVA resin almost disappear after blending less than 16.7 wt% of PVA in NYC resins. However, the characteristics of melting endotherm, X-ray diffraction of α form PVA crystals and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups originally associated with the PVA resins appear gradually as the PVA contents of NYC/PVA specimens are more than 16.7 wt%. The torques vs. time measurements and tensile properties of NYC/PVA specimens support the ideas that PVA molecules are miscible with PA molecules to some extents in the molecular level as the PVA contents of NYC/PVA specimens are less than 16.7 wt%. Moreover, the additional demarcated humps and significantly increased torques and “stabilized” time values support the presence of separated PVA phases in NYC/PVA specimens as their PVA contents are more than 50 wt%. On the other hand, the α form PA crystals continue to grow at the expense of γ form PA crystals as the PVA contents of NYC/PVA specimens increase, and the characteristics of the γ form PA crystals originally shown on the melting endotherm and X-ray diffraction patterns of the NYC resin can barely be seen as the PVA contents of NYC/PVA specimens are equal to or more than 50 wt%. Possible reasons accounting for these interesting blending properties are proposed.


Differential Scanning Calorimetry Thermogram Melting Endotherm Silicate Sheet Peak Diffraction Angle Peak Wave Number 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Olabisi O, Robeson LM, Shaw MT (1979) Polymer-polymer miscibility. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paul DR, Newman S (1978) Polymer blends. Academic Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee CF (2000) Polymer 41:1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kohan MI (ed) (1973) Nylon plastics. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Finch CA (1992) Polyvinyl alcohol, chapters 1–3 and 12–18. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nakano N, Yamane S, Toyosima K (1989) Poval(polyvinyl-alcohol), chapter 3. Japan Polymer Society, Kyo ToGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jang J, Lee DK (2003) Polymer 44:8139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Casey JP, Manley GB (1978) Proceedings of 3rd international biodegradable symposium. Applied Science Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ikejima T, Cao A, Yoshie N, Inoue Y (1998) Polym Degrad Stab 62:463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gajria AM, Dave V, Gross RA, McCarthy SP (1996) Polymer 37:437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koulouri EG, Kallitsis JK (1998) Polymer 39:2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Usuki A, Koiwai A, Kojima Y, Kawasumi M, Okada A, Kurauch T, Kamigaito O (1995) J Appl Polym Sci 55:119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Okada A, Fukushima Y, Kawasumi M, Inagaki S, Usuki A, Sugiyama S, Kurauc Th, Kamigaito O (1988) US Patent 4, 739, 007Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kojima Y, Usuki A, Kawasumi M, Okada A, Fukushima Y, Kurauchi T, Kamigaito O (1992) J Mater Res 8:1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morgan AB, Gilman JW, Harris RH, Jackson CL, Wilkie CH, Zhu J (2000) Polym Mater Sci Eng 83:53Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kojima Y, Usuki A, Kawasumi M, Okada A, Kurauchi T, Kamigaito O (1993) Appl J Polym Sci 49:1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Michaels AS, Chandrasekaran SK, Shaw JE (1975) AICHE J 21:985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wakeman WA, Mason EA (1979) Ind Eng Chem 18:301Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cussler EL, Hughes SE, Ward WJ, Aris R (1988) J Membrane Sci 38:161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Falla WR, Mulski M, Cussler EL (1996) J Membrane Sci 119:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yang CF, Nuxoll EE, Cussler EL (2001) AICHE J 47:295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yeh JT, Yao WH, Chen CC (2005) J Polym Res 12:279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu L, Qi Z, Zhu X (1999) J Appl Polym Sci 71:1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu X, Wu Q (2002) Polymer 43:1933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pinnavaia TJ, Beall GW (2000) Polymer-clay nanocomposites. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wu TM, Chen EC (2002) Polym Eng Sci 42:1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Konishi Y, Cakmak M (2005) Polymer 46:4811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jiang T, Wang YH, Yeh JT, Fan ZQ (2005) Eur Polym J 41:459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Akrovanek DJ. Howes SE, Painter PC, Coleman MM (1985) Macromolecules 18:1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Deimede VA, Fragou KV, Koulouri EG, Kallitsis JK, Voyiatzis GA (2000) Polymer 41:9095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Arimoto H (1964) J Polym Sci: Part A 2:2283Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schroeer LR, Cooper SL (1976) J Appl Phys 47:4310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yeh JT, Yao WH, Du QG, Chen CC (2005) J Polym Sci: Part B 43:511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Holland BJ, Hay JN (2002) Polymer 43:2207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Holland BJ, Hay JN (2001) Polymer 42:6775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Person WB, Zerbi GE (1982) Vibrational intensities in infrared and Ramam Spectroscopy. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lincoln DM, Vaia RA, Wang ZG, Hsiao BS (2001) Polymer 42:1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Chemistry and Material ScienceHubei UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Graduate School of Polymer EngineeringNational Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Textile EngineeringNanya Institute of TechnologyJungliTaiwan

Personalised recommendations