Microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO-based varistors prepared by high-energy ball milling
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ZnO-based varistor ceramics were prepared at sintering temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1,300 °C, by subjecting the mixed oxide powders to high-energy ball milling (HEBM) for 0, 5, 10 and 20 h, respectively. Varistor ceramics prepared by HEBM featured denser body, better electrical properties sintered at low-temperature than at traditional high-temperature. The high density is due to the refinement of the crystalline grains, the enhanced stored energy in the powders coming from lattice distortion and defects as well as the promotion of liquid-phase sintering. Good electrical properties is attributed to proper microstructure formed at low-temperature and improved grain boundary characteristics resulting from HEBM. With increasing sintering temperatures, the electrical properties and density became worse due to the decrease in amount of Bi-rich phase. Temperature increased up to 1,200 °C or above, the Bi-rich phase vanished and the ceramics exhibited very low nonlinear coefficient.
KeywordsBi2O3 Sb2O3 Milled Sample Increase Sinter Temperature Varistor Ceramic
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.50471045) and Shanghai Nano-technology Promotion Center (Grant No.0452nm026).
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